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Blog Unit Biologi KMNS



  •All are prokaryote and unicellular organism. •Cells with no membrane-bound structure protecting their genetic material. •Generally have a single chromosome (circular DNA). •Many species also have plasmids. •Cell wall – peptidoglycan •They reproduce by simply dividing into two separated cells(binary fission). •Chemoheterotrophic – parasites or saprobes ØParasites - living in host, draw glucose and other        nutrient. Saprobes – get nutrients from organic products or  wastes

Eubacteria, quiz 1, quiz 2



Simplest eukaryotic cellular organisms. Autotrophic or heterotrophic or both. Can exist as single-celled, colonial or multicellular. Have real nucleus and another organels. In freshwater or very damp surfaces, saltwater, soil or as symbionts within other organism. Reproduce by sexual and asexual. Can be classified into two sub-classes that is algae and protozoa.

Subkingdom Protozoa, Phylum Euglenophyta, Eg. Euglena, Phylum Rhizopoda, Eg. Amoeba, Phylum Ciliophora, Eg. Paramecium, Phylum Apicomplexa, Eg Plasmodium, Quiz protozoa

Subkingdom Algae, Phylum Chlorophyta, Eg. Chlamydomonas, quiz 2, quiz 1, Phylum Phaeophyta, Eg. Fucus, quiz 1, Quiz Algae



  ukaryotes, non-photosynthetic, multicellular. most are saprobes. ungi produce cell walls, generally compose of chitin, a modified polysaccaride containing nitrogen acid amino. eterotroph Food reserve – Glycogen , carbohydrate and oil. They can reproduce by sexual and asexual reproduction. Fungi develop from single cell called spores, which germinate and develop tube like filaments called hyphae. ( body structure  consists of mycelium) Many fungi reproduce sexual via conjugation – a process whereby 2 hyphae  fuse together. Fungi cannot move by themselves. Differ from other eukaryotes in nutritional mode, structural organization & growth and    reproduction. The body of fungus are made of mycelium which consists of tiny filaments called hyphae. Parasitic fungi usually have some hyphae modified as haustoria, nutrient-absorbing hyphae tips that penetrate the tissues of their host. septate hyphae.- Some Fungi, have hyphae which are divided by cross-segment walls .        They have holes through which cytoplasm and   organelles can move from segment to segment. asetate or coenocytic hyphae - some fungi , have hyphae which are not divided by cross-segment wall. consist of a continuous cytoplasmic mass with hundreds or thousands of nuclei.

Phylum Zygomycota, Eg. Rhizopus, quiz 1, quiz 2

Phylum Ascomycota, Eg. Penicillium, quiz

Phylum Basidiomycota, Eg. Agaricus, quiz



Characteristics of Kingdom Plantae: Cell type : Eukaryotic Number of cell : Multicellular Obtain energy : Autotroph Chloroplast contain chloropyll enabling it to perfom photosynthesis Has a large central vacuole Cell wall made up of cellulose Sexual and asexual reproduction Have clear alteration of generation Examples : Mosses, Herbs, Conifers, Flowering plant.

Bryophytes, Phylum Bryophyta, Eg. Polytrichum sp., ANIMATIONOF POLYTRICHUM LIFE CYCLE, Phylum Hepatophyta, Eg. Marchantia sp., Phylum Anthocerophyta, Eg. Anthoceros sp.

Pteridophytes, Phylum Pteridophyta, Eg. Dryopteris sp., Phylum Lycopodophyta, Eg. Lycopodium sp., E.g: Selaginella sp.

Gymnosperms, Phylum Coniferophyta, Eg. Pinus sp., Phylum Cycadophyta, Eg. Cycas sp., Phylum Ginkophyta, Eg. Ginko sp., Phylum Gnetophyta, Eg. Gnetum sp.

Angiosperms, Phylum Anthophyta/Magnoliophyta, Class Dicotyledonae, E.g: Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Class Monocotyledonae, E.g: Zea mays



­Multicelullar heterotrophs. - heterotrophy is by ingestion (eating other organisms) ­ Diverse in form. - 99% are invertebrates (lacking a backbone). - 42,500 vertebrates. - very diverse in form, ranging in size from ones too small to see with the naked eyes to enormous whale and giant squid. - +/- 35 phyla, most of which occur in the sea. - phylum arthropoda, Mollusca and Chordata dominate animal life on land. ­No cell walls. - quite flexible. - lack rigid cell walls. - the cells of all animals except sponges are organized into structural and functional units called tissues. ­Active movement. - the most striking character compared to the other kingdoms. - directly related to the flexibility of their cells and the evolution of nerve and muscle tissues. -  important feature for seeking their food. ­Sexual reproduction. - Most animals reproduce sexually. - Animal eggs, which are nonmotile, are much larger. than the small, usually flagellated sperm. -  undergo meiosis processes and produce gametes. ­ Embryonic Development. - Most animals have a similar pattern of embryonic development. - The zygote first undergoes - Cleavage, morula, blastula and the other related processes.

Phylum Porifera, e.g: Sponges (Leucosolenia sp.), quiz 1, quiz 2, Animation

Phylum Cnidaria/ Coelentrata, Class Hydrozoa, e.g: hydra, Class Scyphozoa, e.g : jellyfish, Class Anthozoa, e.g: sea anemone, Animation, Quiz

Phylum Platyhelminthes, Class Cestoda, e.g: Tapeworm (Taenia seginata), quiz 1, Class Trematoda, e.g: Fasciola sp., quiz 1, Class Tubelaria, e.g: Planaria sp., Class Monogenea, e.g: Dactylogyrus sp., Animation, Quiz

Phylum Nematoda, e.g. roundworm (Ascaris lumbricoides)., Quiz, Animation

Phylum Mollusca, Class Gastropoda, e.g: Garden snail - Achatina fulica, Class Bivalvia, e.g: clams - Anadara granosa, Class Cephalopoda, Cuttle fish - Sepia sp, Quiz, Animation

Phylum Annelida, Class Polychaeta, e.g: rag worm - Nereis sp., quiz, Class Oligochaeta, e.g: earthworm - Pheretima sp., Class Hirudinea, e.g: Leech - Hirudo sp.

Phylum Athropoda, Class Crustacea, e.g: prawn , Macrobrachium sp., Class Chilopoda, e.g: centipede - Scolopendra sp., Class Diplopoda, e.g: Millipede - Iulus sp, Class Insecta, e.g: Grasshopper - Valanga sp.), Class Arachnida, e.g: spider - Nephila sp., Class Merostomata, e.g: Eastern horseshoe crab - Tachypleus sp.

Phylum Echinodermata, Class Asteroidea, e.g: Starfish, Asterias sp., Class Holothuroidea, e.g: Sea Cucumber, Holothuria sp., Class Crinoidea, e.g: Feather star, Class Echinoidea, e.g: Sea Urchin, Class Ophiuroidea, e.g: Brittlestar, Ophiura sp

Phylum Chordata, Subphyllum Urochordata, e.g: Sea squirt, Subphyllum Hemichordata, e.g: Acorn worm, Subphyllum Cephalochordata, e.g: Lancelet, Subphyllum Vertebrata, Class Chondrichthyes, e.g: ray, Raja sp, Class Osteichthyes, e.g: ikan selar, Selar sp, Class Amphibia, e.g: frog, Rana sp, Class Reptilia, e.g: crocodile, Crocodilus sp, Class Aves, e.g: pigeon, Columba sp, Class Mammalia, e.g: rat, Rattus sp





introduction, Monera, Protista and Fungi




PSPM PST 2003/2004 a) Explain the characteristics of Class Insecta that contribute to its success in  occupying various habitats. [15 marks]  b) Why is Marchantia sp. not widespread on land? [5 marks] PSPM PST 2004/2005 a) Describe sexual reproduction in pteridophytes and bryophytes [10 marks] b) Pteridophytes are considered more advanced compared to bryophytes but are less  advanced than higher plants. Explain why? [10 marks] PSPM PST 2005/2006 a) Discuss the five-kingdom system as proposed by R.H.Whittaker. [ 10 marks] b) Describe the characteristics and classification of Kingdom Fungi. [10 marks] PSPM PST 2006/2007 a) Compare and contrast between Nematode Ascaris and Annelid Pheretima. [11 marks] b)    Discuss the classification of Fungi into three major phyla. [9 marks]       PSPM PST 2007/2008 a) Describe the unique characteristics of Phylum Chordata. [10 marks] b)   Differentiate between plant from the group conifers and angiosperms. [10 marks]     PSPM PST 2008/2009 a)   Discuss about the Whittaker five-kingdom classification system of living organisms. [10 marks] b)   Compare between the phylum Platyhelmintes and phylum Annelida. [10marks]     PSPM PST 2009/20010 a) Explain the characteristics of Arthropod that allow them to successfully conquer various types of habitat. [12 marks] b)   Discuss the alternation of generation in the life cycle of Marchantia. [12 marks]       PSPM PST 2010/2011 a) List the unique characteristics of the phylum Cnidaria and describe briefly the life cycle of Obelia. [12 marks] b) Explain why bryophytes are considered to be more advanced than green algae but more primitive than ferns. [8 marks]     PSPM PST 2011/2012 a) Name the four major groups in the plant kingdom and discuss the major evolutionary trends across the groups. [10 marks]. b)   Differentiate the characteristics between Nematoda and Annelida. [10 marks]            

System Classification


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