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Poisoned by insecticide and herbicide or Agent Orange, Investigation in 1985 says that it had not affected soldiers., Not until 1994 was Agent orange acknowledged for diseases, Cancer, Birth Defects, Miscarriages, brain dysfunction and other diseases believed to be caused by Agent Orange, Pyschologial issues with handling these diseases.
Post traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), Alcoholism, Heart Disease and Other alcohol related diseases, No one knew how to deal with effects of PTSD, Suicide, compensation but nothing else
Lost 2 years of their lives
Unrecognized, Unthanked, No Welcome home parade, Felt Blamed for the war, Shunning of soldiers, Emotionally detached from family and lives
No one tried to understand what the soldiers went through
large and angry anti-war movement growing, Wives of soldiers who were deployed received angry phone calls and letters and anti-war literature was handed out.
By supporting America and risking the lives of Australians we would have a stable economy
Work Stoppages as an anti-war protest
Even before Menzies sent troops a group of Anglican bishops asked him not to increase Australian involvement in Vietnam
The Methodist Church came out as strongly anti-war
Early years some supported and some were against the war, only after the start of conscription that students began to come out in force against the War.
Menzies and Liberal Party Pledge to ban Communists, Previous bans have been attempted but only successful during war, Proposed to be unlawful, Problems, Justifying the ban, Legally, Find a way lawfully to ban all communist activity, Needed to make communism as scary and as threatening to Australia as possible, Industry workers, If Unions were pushed too far then there was a risk of industrial instability, How to identify a communist, Unlikely to own up to it, Guilty until proven innocent, If you were accused of being a communist you were guilty, unless you could prove otherwise., Communist Party Dissolution Bill, 1950, the CPA was to be declared an unlawful organisation and that the party's property could be seized and disposed of., Any other organisations that were suspected of being affiliated with the CPA were also to be dissolved, Anyone who carried on the work of the party after it was declared illegal was to be jailed for five years, as soon as someone was declared to be a communist, they were to be suspended from their job if it were in the federal government, the defence forces, or in the unions, a communist was 'a person who supports or advocates the objectives, policies, teachings, principles or practices of communism, as expounded by Marx and Lenin, Bill failed on first attempt because of the ALP said that the bill was a move towards a totalitarian state, Korean War influenced ALP to accept the Bill on the 20th September 1950 and officially became a law on the 28th October of the same year, The CPA and trade unions went to the high court to ask for an injunction, It was decided after four months that the bill was unconstitutional, 6 of the 7 judges ruled against the act, 1951 Referendum, 22cd November, The One and only question was 'Do you approve of the proposed law for the alteration of the Constitution entitled “Constitution Alteration (Powers to deal with Communists and Communism) 1951"?', The referendum was narrowly defeated by 52082 votes so the Liberal Party wasn't allowed to ban the communist party, America and England also had the same hunt for "reds under the beds
30-year-old, established, political party
South-East Asia Treaty Organisation (SEATO), America, Australia, New Zealand, Britain, France, The Philippines, Thailand and Pakistan were all part of this treaty, Each Party recognises that aggression by means of armed attack in the Treaty Area against any of the Parties or against any State or territory which the Parties by unanimous agreement may hereafter designate, would endanger its own peace and safety, and agrees that it will in that event act to meet the common danger in accordance its constitutional processes. Article IV of the SEATO Treaty, 1954
ANZUS, This treaty was between Australia, New Zealand, and The United States, The main point of the treaty is "The parties will consult together whenever, in the opinion of any one of them, the territorial integrity, political independence or security of any of the Parties is threatened in the Pacific." Article III of the ANZUS Treaty, 1951
Due to war indo-Chinese people needed a country to stay in
operation known as 'Baby Lift', Taking orphans from country to America or Australia to live with families
attempts were made to evacuate as many people as possible out of the country from Australians and Americans, many were left behind
Needed a new way to escape the communist country, Flimsy crowded boats gave them the answer they were looking for
Problems, Months to arrive at destination, Pirates, Unseaworthy vessels, many capsized and were never heard from again
Most of the boats went to Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand and Hong Kong, Over 50 boats managed to make it all the way to Australia and 2000 people every month made it to claim asylum, Refugee Camps, overcrowded, unsanitary and unable to deal with the ever-growing numbers of people arriving, governments argued over how to deal with the situation
The Orderly Departure Program
Whitlam said that Australian foreign policy would be Australian and not dependent on Britain or America
Within a year the Australian Embassy in China was reopened
Japan overtakes England as biggest export market., In 1969-1970 25 percent of Australian exports went to Japan, as opposed to only 11.8 percent going to Britain.
trade agreements with South East Asian countries such as South Korea and Taiwan
Tourist Visas to visit Australia
Australia disagreed with America and maintained relationships with communist Vietnam., the Australian government sent aid to help with reconstruction, By the mid-1980s, however, good relations had once again been re-established.
By 1978 Australia was involved in the Orderly Departure Program from Vietnam
Aborigines counted in the census
new policy of integration rather than assimilation
it became something to embrace not fear
Became a firm government policy, the end of the 'White Australia
Australia had become one of the most multicultural countries in the world
give women a voice in society
Women were involved in politics and were receiving a higher education and equal pay