The English Adjective. The adjective expresses the categorial semantics of property of a substanc...

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The English Adjective. The adjective expresses the categorial semantics of property of a substance аnd each adjective used in text presupposes relation to some noun. Unlike nouns, adjectives do not possess a full nominative value. by Mind Map: The English Adjective. The adjective expresses the categorial semantics of property of a substance аnd each adjective used in text presupposes relation to some noun. Unlike nouns, adjectives do not possess a full nominative value.

1. Characteristics

1.1. syntactical

1.1.1. an attributive

1.1.1.1. a group of words which describes a noun

1.1.2. a predicative

1.1.2.1. a group of words with a verb which describes a noun

1.2. semantic

1.2.1. describe nouns

1.2.1.1. if the adjective is placed in a nominatively self-dependent position, this leads to its substantivisation

1.3. morphological

1.3.1. the category of comparison

2. Features

2.1. The lexico-grammatical meaning of “attributes (of substantives)”. By attributes we mean different properties of substantives, such as their size, colour, position in space, material, psychic state of persons, etc.

2.2. The morphological category of the degrees of comparison.

2.3. The characteristic combinability with nouns (a beautiful girl), link verbs (…is clever), adverbs, mostly those of degree (a very clever boy), the so-called “prop word” one (the grey one).

2.4. The stem-building affixes –ful, -less, -ish, -ous, -ive, -ic, un-, pre-, in-, etc.

2.5. Its functions of an attribute and a predicative complement.

3. Subclasses

3.1. Relative adjectives (e.g. wood – a wooden hut, history – a historical event).

3.2. Qualitative adjectives (e.g. a difficult task – a very difficult task).

3.2.1. One and some two syllabic adjectives that form their degrees by the help of inflections -er and -est respectively: short - shorter - the shortest

3.2.2. The adjectives which form their degrees by means of root-vowel and final consonant change: many - more - the most

3.2.3. The adjectives that form their degrees by means of suppletion: good - better - the best

3.2.4. Many - syllabic adjectives which form their degrees by means of the words "more" and "most": interesting - more interesting - the most interesting

4. The category of the degrees of comparison

4.1. comparables: hot, beautiful, pleasant, ugly, etc.

4.1.1. positive degree

4.1.1.1. no features of comparison

4.1.2. comparative degree

4.1.2.1. the feature of restricted superiority

4.1.3. superlative degree

4.1.3.1. the feature of unrestricted superiority

4.2. non-comparables: wooden, Crimean, mathematical, etc.

5. Statives

5.1. denote "states"

5.2. preffix a-

5.3. do not possess the category of the degrees of comparison

5.4. are characterised by the absence of the righthand combinability with nouns

5.5. For examples: aware, afraid, ashamed, agog, afire etc.