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Rocket clouds

1. Potential for changing the system early in its development Opportunity to stop development on a system that is not working Possibility of developing a system that more closely addresses users’ needs and expectations

1.1. - It can be difficult to manage prototyping as a project in the larger systems effort - Users and analysts may adopt a prototype as a completed system


2.1. - A system that works but is patched up or patched together - A working model that has all the features but is inefficient - Users can interact with the system - Retrieval and storage of information may be inefficient


3.1. - A nonworking scale mode that is set up to test certain aspects of the design - A nonworking scale model of an information system might be produced when the coding required by the application is too expensive to prototype but when a useful idea of the system can be gained through prototyping of the input and output only.



5.1. - Building an operational model that includes some, but not all, of the features that the final system will have - Some, but not all, essential features are included - Built in modules - Part of the actual system


6.1. Work in manageable modules

6.1.1. - It is imperative that an analyst work in manageable modules - One distinct advantage of prototyping is that it is not necessary or desirable to build an entire working system for prototype purposes - A manageable module allows users to interact with its key features but can be built separately from other system modules - Module features that are deemed less important are purposely left out of the initial prototype

6.2. - Creating a pilot - Prototype is completely operational - Useful when many installations of the same information system are planned - A full-scale prototype is installed in one or two locations first, and if successful, duplicates are installed at all locations based on customer usage patterns and other key factors

6.3. Build the prototype rapidly

6.3.1. - Speed is essential for successful prototyping - Analysts can use prototyping to shorten this gap by using traditional information-gathering techniques to find information requirements - Make decisions that bring forth a working model - Putting together an operational prototype rapidly and early in the SDLC allows an analyst to gain insight about the remainder of the project - Showing users early in the process how parts of the system actually perform guards against overcommitting resources to a project that may eventually become unworkable

6.4. Modify the prototype in successive iterations

6.4.1. - Making a prototype modifiable means creating it in modules that are not highly interdependent - The prototype is usually modified several times - Changes should move the system closer to what users say is important - Each modification is followed by an evaluation by users

6.5. Stress the user interface

6.5.1. - Use the prototype is to get users to further articulate their information requirements - They should be able to see how the prototype will enable them to accomplish their tasks - The user interface must be well developed enough to enable users to pick up the system quickly - Online, interactive systems using GUI interfaces are ideally suited to prototypes