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Conflict and Changes by Mind Map: Conflict and Changes
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Conflict and Changes

Key People

Louis-Joseph Papineau

Backgound, father was seigneur, privileged people in lower canda, born in montreal, studied to learn lawyer, interested in politics, elected to legislative assembly in 1809

Achievements, surported reforms, tried to presuace the british government to reform the system in lower Canada, published the ninety-two resolutions, a list of demands for reform, his surporters were called patriots, rebel against the government, organized a rebellion

Significance, voice of moderate reform in 1830s, died in 1871 at the age of ninety five

Wiliam Lyon Mackenzie

Backgound, born in scotland, came to upper Canada in 1820, was a printer by trade, found work with newspaper

Achievements, elected to legislative assembly in 1828, strong supporter of reform, expelled in 1831 for publishing libels, (false and damaging statements about a person), had a fiery temper and owned a newspaper called Colonial Advocate, published articles that used insulting language to describe his enemis, re-elected to the assembly four times, each time he was prevented from taking his seat because of his previous libels, durring the election of 1836 he published his support of the Reform Party in his newspaper, the Reformers lot the election and blamed the lieutenant governor for openly supporting the Family Compact

Significance, wrote vicious things about his political enemies, led an illegal rebellion against the crown, one of the few to stand up against a government, erected a statue of him at the provincial legislature in Toronto

Sir Francis Bond Head

Backgound, was a soldier in the British Army, retired as a major in 1825, spent number of years in South America working for a mining company as an engineer

Achievements, appointed lieutenant governor of upper Canada, he would be representative of the Crown, appointed reformers to the executive council, ignored the council's advice, he told them to change their view or resign, on 1836 the legislative assembly passed a resolution criticizing Bond Heads behavior and his interference in elections

Significance, His interference in elections and his support for the Tories showed how far he would go to resist the Reformers, after the rebellion in 1837 the british government lost confidence in BOnd Head, he was recalled to London and appointed a replacement, he never held position in government again

Robert Baldwin

Backgound, lawyer and a polictican, 1804-1858, eldest son of William Warren Baldwin, in upper canada

Achievements, elected as a parlilment in upper canada, In 1840, he was persuaded to accept the post of solicitor general of upper Canada by Poulett Thomson, he became solicitor-general of Canada West with a seat in the Executive Council, he was elected as a Reformer to represent hasting in assembly, formed a ministry known as the first Baldwin-Lafontaine administration which held office until the crisis of november in 1843.

Significance, in the subsequent election in 1851 he was defeated in North York by a considerable majority and he retired, he gave his approval to the formation of the union of the conservatives and the baldwin liberals in what came to be known as the Liberal conservative party, he died in Toronto in 1858

Louis-Hippolyte LaFontaine

Backgound, College de Montreal, studies in 1820, loved to work and an astonishing memory, strong personality and competitieve

Achievements, worked with Robert Baldwin, formed a government in 1842, passes bills to abolish the seigneurial system, grant amnesty to the leader of the rebellion in lower Canada, the ring passed but it was not accepted by the loyalists of Canada East that protested violently and attacked the Parliament in Montreal

Signifcance, retired in 1851, was appointed chief justice of Canada East in 1853, in 1854 he was created a baronet

Lord Durham

Backgound, spent only five years in Canada, less than two weeks in upper Canada, spent most time in lower Canada, completed in 1839

Achievements, the most significant document in Canadian History, recommended responsible government, union of upper and lower Canada, described lower Canada bad, responsible government used until 1847

Signifcance, his report helped alot, played an important role in Canadian history, and in development of Canadian autonomy

Conflicts

The Undemocratic Governments

democratic government is when you can choose your representatives through elections and they have the power to make laws

the system was undemocratic

the governor appointed the lieutenant governor who appointed the executive council

if the legislative passed a bill that they not like, he would tell people to vote against it

they did not have much power against bills

The Government Elites

had all the power

called Chateau Clique in lower Canada

called Family Compact in upper Canada

mainly lawyers, landowners, clergy, and a few rich merchants

did not want to give power to the elected representatives

worked to keep their powers

The Economic Decline

when Britian and France were at war from 1794 to 1815 their economies slowed down

prices of agriculture fell steadily

by 1830, many farmers were almost bankrupt

dissatisfaction grew

The Decline of the seigneurial system

more problems in lower Canada

the seigneurial system had been a good way of developing the colony

as the British merchants in lower Canada lived with a good life, the seigneur began to envy them

so they decided to increase their income

they raised taxes and rents

the habitants complained but lower Canada didn't help them

Transportation

in upper Canada merchants were expanding trade

transportation routes had to expand

traveling with goods took ships

in the 1800s companies built many canals to improve shipping

the Rebellion of 1837 in upper Canada

by 1837 Mackenzie gave up on peaceful reform

in december 1837 his supporters began to gather at Montgomery's Tavern

6km north of Toronto

his troops carried rifles, shotguns, swords and clubs

they were mainly bands of farmers, workers and unemployed people

but they did not have firepower as the militia

Mackenzie hesitated for 3 days letting the Governor Bond Head more time to organize his troops to defend Toronto

Finally he led 400 troops along south of Yonge Street and eventually met the troops defending the city

his troops were too weak and did not have enough firearms

soon they fled in panic and Mackenzie fled to the countryside and went to the United State

after he went back to Toronto and resumed his career as a writer and politican

the rebellion of 1837 in lower Canada

The Battle of Saint-Denis and Saint Charles, fighting broke out in 1837, armed patriots captured a seigneur's manor and the rebels claimed a victory because they failed to recapture the manor, Later at Saint-Charles approached a Patriote camp with 100 rebels, the army attacked the camp killing many defenders, this battle demonstrated the determination of the government to suppress the rebellion

The Battle of Saint-Eustache, Sir John Colborne was the commander of the British Army in North America, he led 1200 armed troops against a patriot camp and Saint-Eustache, the rebels defended themselves in a church, but they were too weak against the army, about 100 rebels were killed and many were taken as prisoners

Hunter's Lodge

many americans living near the border thought the rebels would win

so they helped the rebels

rebels that fled to United States began to start a group to attch Lower and Upper Canada

they were called Hunter's Lodge

in Lower Canada they were called Freres Chasseur

there were many american members

by mid1838 there were about 40000-60000 nembers

they invaded them many times but they were defeated at Windsor an Prescott in Upper Canada

they were defeated at Napierville, Lacolle and Odelltown in Lower Canada

Changes

Acts

Union act in 1840, join the Canadas together, the Canadas were renamed Canada East and Canada West, capital would be in Kingston, Canada West, one legislature to make laws for both provinces which would meet in Kingston one year and the next in Montreal, Equal representation of representation by poplulation, each province would get 65 representation, total of 130, grant responsible government, it was not mentioned in the act, it was neither granted or refused, after 1841 Canada East and Canada West faced many new problems, there were many disagreements between the two provinces over their future, the act remained in effect for 26 years, in 1867 a new act replaced it, British North America Act created the Canadian Confederation, the act made new rules for the new Country Canada