India 1857-1890 Pt 2

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India 1857-1890 Pt 2 by Mind Map: India 1857-1890 Pt 2

1. Political Changes

1.1. Gov of India Act 1858:

1.1.1. Transferred power from EIC to Queen Vic and company ceased to exist

1.1.2. Sec of State post created (gained powers of EIC directors)- Nov 58 Proc. Crown appointed Viceroy to replace Gov General . ICS under control of SEC OF STATE.

1.1.3. 1877 Queen Vic- Empress of India- given by PM Disraeli.

2. Br Admin Poicy

2.1. Hierachy:

2.1.1. 1/ Queen Empress 2/ Sec of State/India Coucil 3/ Viceroy 4/ ICS/Provincial Governors/ Legislative Council 5/ Native Princes/Br residents/Prov Leg Council 6/ District officers 7/ Local officials/local councils

2.2. Significant legal changes: EIC courts merged w/ Crown courts Br introduced a system largely based on own law.

2.3. ICS in areas of direct rule became instrument of imperial admin> measures limited Indians joining. 1000 Br ruled 230 mill

2.4. 1859-61 Viceroy Canning tour of India- restore relations between Br and Indians. As a result:

2.4.1. Some land and titles restored to Indians including: Mysore, Oudh

2.4.2. Star of India medals introudced (founded 1861 Queen Vic) Knight Grand Commander (GCSI), Knight Commander( kcsi), Companion (CSI).

2.4.3. Positions in Imperial Assembly of Staturory Civil Service posts shared amonst Indian nobility

3. Br Military Policy

3.1. 1/ EIC army came under control of Br crown- Indian parts reduced from 238,000 in 1857 to 125,000 (1881) and 70,000 Br troops (62%) of garrisons in Empire

3.2. 2/ Disloyal elements disbanded/ loyal sections increased >Sikh/NW Muslims/Ghurka. Bengali- disloyal 62/74 regiments disbanded/ high caste Brahmins disappeared. 1875- 1/2 of army Punjab-loyalist

3.3. 3/ Br officers increased to 2:1 Bengal 2:5 Bombay/Madras

3.4. 4/ Br mixed castes and religions to divide and rule more easily

3.5. 5/ Tribal regiments X allowed field artillery

3.6. 6/ Indians placed under Br command denied officer ranking- Br ordered show greater respect for sepoy beliefs/traditions

4. Br Economic Policy.Trade and Commerce

4.1. Br economic influence grew X dramatically change. EIC: sig economic presence involved in markets of jute,cotton,saltpetre,opium

4.2. 1/ India more fully under Br control- increased investment. 1851 1 tea plantation 1871 295. Cheapest and most popular drink among Britons

4.3. 2/ Railways started to be developed in 1850's 15,000 miles of track laid by 1880- higher profile to Br rule/affirm control by transporting troops and personnel

4.4. 3/ 1st European style factories developed in 1850's; vast majority manufactured goods still came from Br- virtually no heavy industry

4.5. 4/By 1877, majority of Indians remained in substinence farming w/ major changed in ec develop eg. domestic production of cotton coming after 1877.

4.6. 5/ Br offered markets for Indian agricultural produce- ecnouraged specilisation in cash crops for export eg rice.wheat.

4.6.1. Population depended on lower value grains rye,barley,coarse rice produced in lower quantities- dependent on food imports/consumption per head declined

4.6.2. Widespread poverty continued: 7 million Indians died 1857-1914 Famines: 1860-73 4.5 million dead, 1876-78 Great Famine of S India 5.5 million Br territory- estimates 6-10 million, Indian Famine of 1896-7 5 million dead etc

4.7. 1890- 40% of cotton exports went to India. End of 19th c India 19% of Br exports- over 20% of Br investment overseas

5. Br Social Policy

5.1. Br educational influence started as early as 1835- Macauley. Creation of education system to crete anglicised Indians- go-betweens in assisting Br manage interest in India.

5.2. 1/ Despite gov hostility- hundreds of schools founded, 10's of thousands of Indians educated, 1/3 of whom entered public administration

5.3. 2/ 1st Unis: Calcutta,Bombay,Madras est 1857 and elite schools eg Rajkumar College, Mayo College and Bombay's Cathedral School set up to produce Westernised Oriental Gentlemen

5.4. 4/ Following 30 years, 60,000 Indians entered universities mostly in the Arts and Law.

5.5. Social reformer Mary Carpenter central to promoting girls education est a Br teachers for India as well as girl's schools in Bombay and a college to train female teachers between 1866-75