Foundations of Education

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Foundations of Education by Mind Map: Foundations of Education

1. Politics of Education

1.1. Purposes of education

1.1.1. 1. Intellectual- to help students acquire higher-order thinking. Examples- evaluation and analysis.

1.1.2. 2. Political- to prepare citizens for society.

1.1.3. 3. Social- to help prepare children for society and all of its values.

1.1.4. 4. Economic- to prepare students for future labor.

1.2. Perspectives

1.2.1. 1. Role of the school: Conservative- school should make sure all students have an opportunity to compete and be rewarded.

1.2.2. 2. Unequal performance: Liberal- argues that different students have better chances due to their lifestyles compared to others.

1.2.3. 3. Definition of educational problems: Radical- feels the system has failed the poor, minorities, and women through discriminatory policies.

2. History of U.S. Education

2.1. Reform Movement

2.1.1. 1983 National Commission on Excellence Founded by Terrel Bell. (President Reagan's Secretary of Education) Pushed for completion of consecutive years in English, Math, Science, Social Studies and Computer Science. Stressed a higher level of achievement for students and teachers.

2.2. Historical Interpretation

2.2.1. Democratic liberals believe the history of U.S. education involves providing opportunities for all.

2.2.2. Each period of expansion involved attempts of liberals to expand to larger segments of population and reject the conservative view.

2.2.3. Involves expansion of opportunity and purpose.

3. Sociological Perspectives

3.1. Theoretical Perspectives

3.1.1. 1. Functionalism Education in all societies is critical in creating unity for social cohesion. Schools can socialize students according to their abilities.

3.1.2. 2. Conflict Theory Feels that social order is formed by people who take charge and demand others do as they say. They believe the struggle between positions in the school is similar to the struggle in society.

3.1.3. 3. Interactionalism Focuses on daily behavior of students and teachers and how they socialize while in school.

3.2. Effects of Schooling on Individuals

3.2.1. 1. Education and Mobility Type of education received whether public or private sets standards. Not all have the means to do private. The same education is still received.

3.2.2. 2. Teacher Contact Teachers are in constant contact with students daily. If a teacher is positive and encouraging the outcome for the student is usually better.

3.2.3. 3. Student Peer Groups and Alienation It is important to belong to a group. If a student is rejected and ignored it may cause the student to be violent, to drop out of school, and may cause issues later in life.

3.2.4. 4. Education and Inequality If a student is in a certain social class they may not be given the same opportunities as others.

3.2.5. 5. Inadequate Schools Schools may not be properly funded or equipped to handle the needs of their students.

4. Philosophy of Education

4.1. Pragmatism

4.1.1. Generic Notions Children grow and need to represent this process in stages. Find out needs and interests of students but allow them to help in their education.

4.1.2. Key Researchers John Dewey and Emile Durkheim believed that the needs of students and the community should balance equally.

4.1.3. Goal of Education School is a place for learning, coming up with new ideas, and preparing students for life.

4.1.4. Role of Teacher Planner, instructs, encourages, and helps put the plan into action.

4.1.5. Method of Instruction Groups and individual work is encouraged. Freedom to move around and stretch is also encouraged when appropriate.

4.1.6. Curriculum It should reflect the needs and interests of the students.

5. Curriculum & Pedagogy

5.1. Curriculum Theory

5.1.1. Developmentalist- Curriculum is based upon needs and interests of the student.

5.2. Dominant Traditions of Teaching

5.2.1. Mimetic- to transmit specific knowledge to students.

5.2.2. Transformative- to change the student in a meaningful way.

6. Equality of Opportunity

6.1. Impact of Educational Outcomes

6.1.1. Class Most who are born into a social class remain there. The percentage who rise above their social class is low but not impossible.

6.1.2. Race Race directly impacts education. Students may be judged due to the color of their skin.

6.1.3. Gender Years ago gender was an issue. It still exists but is not as frequent of an issue.

6.2. 1982 Coleman Study

6.2.1. Responses It was suggested that private schools were more effective learning environments due to emphasis and enforcing discipline. Differences among schools do make a difference. Private schools demand more from their students than public schools.

7. Educational Inequality

7.1. Cultural Differences Theories

7.1.1. Macrosociological Perspective- working class students adapt to unequal aspects of class structure.

7.1.2. Working class and nonwhite students are seen as resisting dominant culture of schools. Students began to embrace an anti-school culture. They reject school and enter the work world.

7.2. School Centered Explanations

7.2.1. School Financing- differences between rich and poor districts.

7.2.2. School Climates- differences in what the school has to offer affects academic performances.

7.2.3. Curriculum and Ability Grouping- students are separated according to scores, gender, race, or teacher referrals.

7.2.4. Gender Roles- women tend to be viewed as teaching younger children.

8. Educational Reform

8.1. School- based Reforms

8.1.1. Privatization Private education companies became involved in public education in many ways. Kaplan and Sylvan learning centers have contracts for tutoring. Other companies have taken over failing districts and schools.

8.1.2. Full Service and Community Schools Why just educate the student when you can educate the whole community. This type of school can help to improve at-risk neighborhoods. They provide after-school programs, health services, recreation, etc.

8.2. Darling Hammond's Five Elements

8.2.1. 1. Meaningful learning goals

8.2.2. 2. Accountability

8.2.3. 3. Resources

8.2.4. 4. Standards and Support

8.2.5. 5. Organized for Student and Teacher learning

8.3. No Child Left Behind

8.3.1. All students should have a chance to succeed in education and society. Unfortunately, due to many factors some students slip through the cracks.

9. Schools as Organizations

9.1. Federal Alabama Senators

9.1.1. Doug Jones

9.1.2. Richard Shelby

9.2. House of Representatives

9.2.1. Bradley Byrne, Martha Roby, Mike Rogers

9.2.2. Robert Aderholt, Mo Brooks,

9.2.3. Gary Palmer, Terri Sewell

9.3. State Superintendent

9.3.1. Dr. Ed Richardson

9.4. State School Board Representative

9.4.1. Greg Reed

9.5. Local School Board

9.5.1. Superintendent- Ann Jackson

9.5.2. Members- Willie Moore, Walker Wilson, Teresa Sherer, Mary Beth Barber, Scott Thornley

9.6. Elements of Change

9.6.1. 1. School Processes 1. Conflict must occur 2. Learning new behavior must be encouraged 3. Team building must happen 4. Process and content go hand in hand

9.6.2. 2. School Cultures 1. Time is needed 2. Effort 3. Intelligence 4. Goodwill