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COMS100A by Mind Map: COMS100A

1. Links

1.1. SacCT

2. First part

2.1. Google searches

2.1.1. Assumption The Internet is full of academic goodness Knowledge in the form of... Documents Videos Interactive media Audio Demonstrations Graphics Etc.

2.1.2. Your journey Self-determination A quest for knowledge A quest to help others

2.1.3. The kernel of your search The book chapter

2.1.4. The Google guide

2.1.5. Google searches

3. Third part

3.1. Group work

3.1.1. Video lesson - How to author chapters Video in YouTube

3.1.2. Sources for each group's work Original textbooks source Chapter submissions Our Google Docs version of the textbook Weekly submissions - In forms Weekly submissions - In textbook In-class evaluation of resources submitted

3.1.3. Steps to create "enriched" chapter Work in Google Chrome Start with the Chapter template Transfer content to Google Document (Text savvy student with attention to detail) Proper marking of text with pre-established sheet styles Text and images in chapter Text and images in chapter boxes/tables Adding more images Placement of web resources to enrich chapter Evaluate if each resource is of high quality If it is of high quality, ensure annotation has proper English grammar and spelling (Student with strong writing skills) Create footnote

3.2. Presentation

4. Second part

4.1. Weekly individual work

4.1.1. Cover the book material individually

4.1.2. Find relevant and valuable resources online

4.1.3. Post Meaningful and Interesting Resource Description of the resource and how it specifically relates to the reading Why is it upper division material

4.2. Weekly group work

4.3. Chapter 1. ­Foundations: Defining Communication and Communication Study

4.3.1. Objectives Explain communication study Define communication Explain the linear and transactional models Discuss the benefits of studying Communication

4.3.2. What is Communication Study? Smit, Lasswell, Casey Who says what, through what channels (media) of communication, to whom, [and] what will be the results National Communication Association Our textbook The process of using symbols to exchange meaning

4.3.3. Linear model (Unidirectional) Sender Receiver Message Channel Verbal Non-verbal Noise External Internal

4.3.4. The Transactional Model of Communication Bidirectional

4.4. Chapter 2. Verbal Communication.

4.4.1. Objectives Define verbal communication and explain its main characteristics. Understand the three qualities of symbols. Describe the rules governing verbal communication. Explain the differences between written and spoken communication. Describe the functions of verbal communication.

4.4.2. Defining verbal communication An agree-upon and rule-governed system of symbols used to share meaning Oral Non-oral

4.4.3. A system of Symbols Symbols are arbitrary representations of thoughts, ideas, emotions, objects, or actions used to encode and decode meaning Distinct qualities of symbols Arbitrary Ambiguous Abstract

4.4.4. Ruled-Governed Phonology The study of speech sounds Semantic rules Denotative meaning Connotative meaning Syntactics Study of language structure and symbolic arrangement Pragmatics The study of how people actually use verbal communication

4.4.5. Spoken versus Written Communication Formal versus informal Synchronous versus asynchronous Recorded versus unrecorded Privacy

4.4.6. Functions of verbal communication Verbal communication helps us define reality Verbal communication helps us organize complex ideas and experiences into meaningful categories Verbal communication helps us think Verbal communication helps us shape our attitudes about our world

4.5. Chapter 3. Non-verbal Communication

4.5.1. Objectives Define nonverbal communication Explain the main characteristics of nonverbal communication Explain the differences between verbal and nonverbal communication Describe the eight types of nonverbal communication Describe the functions of nonverbal communication

4.5.2. Definition of nonverbal communication Any meaning conveyed through sounds, behaviors, and artifacts other than words

4.5.3. Differences between verbal and nonverbal communication Nonverbal communication uses multiple channels simultaneously Non-verbal communication is continuous Nonverbal communication can be both conscious and unconscious Certain nonverbal communication is universally understood

4.5.4. Types of Nonverbal Communication Kinesics Study of how we use body movement and facial expressions Haptics The study of touch Personal appearance, objects, and artifacts Non verbal communication we use our bodies and surroundings to communicate meaning to others Proxemics Study of how our use of space influences the ways we relate with others Chronemics The study of how people use time Paralanguage Vocal qualities such as pitch, volume, inflection, rate of speech, and rythm.

4.5.5. Functions of nonverbal communication We use nonverbal communication to duplicate verbal communication We sue nonverbal communication to replace verbal communication We use nonverbal cues to complement verbal communication We use nonverbal communication to accent verbal communication We use nonverbal communication to regulate verbal communication We use nonverbal communication to contradict verbal communication We use nonverbal communication to indicate relational standing We sue nonverbal communication to demonstrate and maintain cultural norms We use nonverbal communication to communicate emotions

4.6. Chapter 5. Communication Theories

4.6.1. Objectives Define theory and explain its functions. Demonstrate how theories are developed. Explain what makes a useful theory. Understand the idea of Theoretical Paradigms. Explain the Empirical Laws Paradigm. Explain the Human Rules Paradigm. Explain the Systems Theory Paradigm. Explain the Rhetorical Theory Paradigm. Explain the Critical Theory Paradigm.

4.6.2. Definition of theory Hoover: A set of inter-related propositions that suggest why events occur in the manner that they do. Foss, Foss and Griffin: A way of framing an experience or event -an effort to understand and account for something and the way it functions in the world.

4.6.3. Encyclopedia of Communication Theory

4.6.4. Functions of communication theories Help us organize and understand communication experiences Theories can guide us in choosing which behaviors to study Theories help us broaden our personal knowledge of human communication Theories are tools to help predict and control our communication Theories can aid us in challenging current social and cultural realities

4.6.5. How we develop Communication Theories Littlejohn& Foss: 1) Ask important questions 2) Look for answers by observing communicative behavior 3) Form answers and theories as a result of your observations About what is stated in the book: It is not easy to come up with communication theories.

4.6.6. Evaluating theories Scope How broad or how narrow Parsimony A simple solution takes precedence over a more complicated one Heuristic value Prompts other theorists to engage in further study and theorizing about a given problem Openness Allows for, and recognizes, multiple options and perspectives Contextual, qualified and open to refinement Appropriatness Fit between underlying theoretical assumptions and the research question Validity Practical nature of a theory

4.6.7. Theoretical paradigms Paradigm Multiple theories Collection of concepts, values, assumptions and practices that constitute a way of viewing reality Empirical Laws Paradigm There are universal laws that govern how we communicate Characteristics Natural sciences and Social sciences Human Laws Paradigm Approaches communication from the perspective that we follow shared rules of communication, not strict laws Systems Theory Paradigm Everything is interconnected and therefore, we should study interconnectedness as a means of understanding the world. This departs from empirical approaches that traditionally study phenomena by looking at individual components Systems are teleological Homeostasis Rethorical Theories Paradigm A good definition of rhetoric is, “any kind of human symbol use that functions in any realm—public, private, and anything in between” (Foss, Foss & Trapp, 7). Critical Theories Paradigm The Critical Theories Paradigm helps us understand how communication is used to oppress, and provides ways to foster positive social change (Foss & Foss; Fay). Cultural Studies focus on understanding the real-life experiences of people, examining communication contexts for hidden power structures, and accomplishing positive social change as a result (Dines and Humez; Kellner).

4.7. Chapter 6. Communication research

4.7.1. Objectives Understand what we consider as Communication research Explain how Communication research is done Identify motivational factors that influence Communication research Explain the three broad approaches to Communication research as well as specific research methodologies

4.7.2. Meanings of the word "research" Mad man in a laboratory? Browsing the web?

4.7.3. Seven basic steps of research Identify a focus of research Develop a research question(s) Have this question been asked before? Define key terms Operationalization Select an appropriate research methodology Establish a sample population or data set College students? Gather and analyze data Descriptive Inferential Interpret and share results Development and refinement of theories

4.7.4. Motivational factors Intended outcomes Theoretical preferences Methodological preferences

4.7.5. Quantitative Methodologies Survey research Questions answered by people Generalizable if sample is large Experimental research Experimental group and Control group Lab setting or real-world setting Content analysis Count the number of occurrences of particular phenomena in these contexts to explore potential effects Movies, commercials, TV shows, radio shows, magazines, newspapers, etc. Meta-Analysis?

4.7.6. Qualitative Methodologies Ethnography Focus group interviewing Action research If you’ve ever had a professor who had unique styles of teaching, it is likely that he/she may have been involved in research that examined new approaches to teaching students. Unobtrusive research All the unobtrusive strategies amount to examining and assessing human traces Historiography Discovering, from records and accounts, what happened during some past period Case Studies Case studies involve gathering significant information about particular people, contexts, or phenomena to understand a particular case under investigation.

4.7.7. Rhetorical Methodologies Neo-Aristotelian Criticism A researcher recreates the context for others by describing the historical period of the message being studied The researcher may examine what types of logic are offered in a speech or how its delivery enhances or detracts from the ethos of the speaker Fantasy Theme Criticism Fantasy theme research looks for words or phrases that characterize the shared vision of a group in order to explain how the group characterizes or understands events around them. Narrative Criticism Narrative rhetorical research contends that people (interact and) learn through the sharing of stories Pentadic Criticism Act Agent Agency Scene Purpose Feminist Criticism The analysis of rhetoric to discover how the rhetorical construction of gender is used as a means for oppression and how that process can be challenged and resisted Ideological Criticism Ideology is a collection of values, beliefs, or ethics that influence modes of behavior for a group or culture.

4.8. Chapter 8. Mass Communication

4.8.1. Objectives Define mass communication. Identify key functions of mass communication. Understand prominent theories of mass communication. Understand the role that media plays in your life. Describe pop culture. Identify several key elements of media literacy. Recognize your role in the global community.

4.8.2. Defining Mass Communication Littlejohn and Foss: The process whereby media organizations produce and transmit messages to large publics and the process by which those messages are sought, used, understood, and influenced by audience McQuail: Only one of the processes of communication operating at the society-wide level, readily identified by its institutional characteristics Berger: The sender often is a person in some large media organization, the messages are public, and the audience tends to be large and varied

4.8.3. Media concentration in the US WSJ 2016

4.8.4. Key factors of Mass Communication First, is the dependence on a media channel to convey a message to a large audience. Second, the audience tends to be distant, diverse, and varies in size depending on the medium and message. Third, mass communication is most often profit driven, and feedback is limited. Fourth, because of the impersonal nature of mass communication, participants are not equally present during the process.

4.8.5. McLuhan Hot and Cold media Hot = One sense high definition Cold = Multiple senses Global village

4.8.6. Functions of mass media Surveillance Find out what's going on around you Correlation Similarities between mass media and real life Sensationalization Audiences as consumers Entertainment Escape reality Transmission Sharing cultural norms, values, rules, and habits Mobilization Mobilize people in crises Validation "Validate the status and norms of particular individuals, movements, organizations, or products"

4.8.7. Grounding theories The magic bullet theory Two-step flow theory Opinion leaders Opinion followers Multi-step flow theory Opinion leaders Opinion followers Uses and gratifications Cultivation Theory

4.8.8. Advertising funded mass media

4.8.9. Media literacy "Awareness regarding our mediated environment or consumption of mass communication" Understand and respect the power of mass communication messages Understand content by paying attention and filtering out noise Understand emotional versus reasoned reactions to mass communication content in order to act accordingly Develop heightened expectations of mass communication content Understand genre conventions and recognize when they are being mixed Think critically about mass communication messages, no matter how credible their source Understand the internal language of mass communication to understand its effects, no matter how complex

4.9. Chapter 9. Interpersonal Communication

4.9.1. Objectives Define interpersonal communication. Explain self-disclosure. Understand the role of communication climate on interpersonal communication. Be aware of the role of dialectical tensions in interpersonal communication. Understand the unique dynamics of friendship. Understand the unique dynamics of romantic relationships. Understand the unique dynamics of family. Understand the various ways of interpreting and responding to conflict in interpersonal communication.

4.9.2. Self-Disclosure Johari Window

4.9.3. Relational Dialectics Types Autonomy-Connection Novelty-Predictability Openness-Closedness How We Handle Relational Dialectics Neutralize Separate Segment Reframe

4.9.4. Communication Climate Climates Confirming Climates Disconfirming Climates Types of messages that create confirming and disconfirming climates Recognition Messages Acknowledgement Messages Endorsement Messages

4.9.5. Developing and Maintaining Friendships Steps 1 Role-Limited Interaction 2 Friendly Relations 3 Moving Toward Friendship 4 Nascent Friendship 5 Stabilized Friendship 6 Waning Friendship Challenges for Friendships Gender Culture Sexual Attraction

4.9.6. Developing and Maintaining Romantic Relationships Stages 1 No Interaction 2 Invitational Communication 3 Explorational Communication 4 Intensifying Communication 5 Revising Communication 6 Commitment Deterioration Dyadic Breakdown Intrapsychic Phase Dyadic Phase Social Support Grave Dressing

4.9.7. Family Relationships Characteristics Families Are Organized Families Are a Relational Transactional Group Families Usually Occupy a Common Living Space Over an Extended Period of Time Families Possess a Mixture of Interpersonal Images that Evolve Through the Exchange of Meaning Over Time Family Development Establishing a Family Enlarging a Family Developing a Family Encouraging Independence Launching Children Post-Launching of Children Retirement

4.9.8. Thinking About Conflict Conflict as Destructive Conflict as Productive Types of Conflict Affective conflict Conflict of Interest Value Conflict Cognitive Conflict Goal Conflict Strategies for Managing Conflict dominating strategy obliging style compromising style avoids integrating

4.10. Chapter 10. Group Communication

4.10.1. Objectives Define what constitutes a group and team. Understand cultural influences on groups. Explain how groups and teams form. Identify group roles and norms. Understand different styles of leadership in groups. Recognize style and options for decision making in groups. Explain the impact of technology on group communication.

4.10.2. Definition of group A collection of three or more individuals who interact about some common problem or interdependent goal and can exert mutual influence over one another Loosely, 3 to 12 people Smaller groups foster equal participation A team: a specialized group with a strong sense of belonging and commitment to each other that shapes an overall collective identity

4.10.3. Characteristics of groups Interdependence The recognition by those in a group of their need for the others in the group Interaction Interaction is purposeful Types of interaction Synergy More than the sum of the parts Common goals Shared norms Cohesiveness

4.10.4. Types of groups Primary groups Inclusion, affection, love. Secondary groups Accomplish work, perform tasks, solve problems, make decisions Activity groups Personal growth groups Obtain support and feedback from others, as well as to grow as a person Learning groups Problem-Solving groups

4.10.5. Strategies that stress group success Promulgation Solidification Polarization

4.10.6. Role of individuals in cultures Collectivist cultures Individualistic cultures

4.10.7. Power in groups Power influences how we interpret the messages of others and determines the extent to which we feel we have the right to speak up and voice our concerns and opinions to others. Power-over enables one individual or group to make the decisions that affect others, and to enforce control This power is wielded from the workplace, in the schools, in the courts, in the doctor’s office. It may rule with weapons that are physical or by controlling the resources we need to live: money, food, medical care; or by controlling more subtle resources: information, approval, love. We are so accustomed to power-over, so steeped in its language and its implicit threats, that we often become aware of its functioning only when we see its extreme manifestations. Power-from-within refers to a more personal sense of strength or agency. Power-from-within manifests itself when we can stand, walk, and speak “words that convey our needs and thoughts” Power-with is “the power of a strong individual in a group of equals, the power not to command, but to suggest and be listened to, to begin something and see it happen” All group members must communicate respect and equality for one another The leader must not abuse power-with and attempt to turn it into power-over.

4.10.8. Forming groups Share similar interests or attractions Drive reduction Our work with others reduces the drive to fulfill our needs by spreading out involvement Reinforcement Groups provides reinforcement from others in the pursuit of our goals and rewards Stages Forming Storming Norming Performing Terminating

4.10.9. Group roles Task roles Task leader Information gatherers Opinion gatherers Devil's advocate Energizer Social-emotional roles Social-Emotional Leader Encourager Followers Tension Releaser Compromiser Procedural roles Facilitator Gatekeepers Recorder Individual roles Aggressor Blocker Self-Confessor Playboy or Playgirl Joker or Clown

4.10.10. Leadership in groups Laissez-faire Authoritarian leadership style Democratic style of leadership

4.10.11. Norms Norms influence the ways we communicate with other members, and ultimately, the outcome of group participation Categories General norms Role-specific norms

4.10.12. Decision making in groups Consensus Voting Compromise Authority rule

4.11. Chapter 11. Organizational Communication

4.11.1. Objectives Define organizations and organizational communication. Explain how the study of organizational communication developed. Explain the five theoretical perspectives for understanding organizational communication. Understand the challenges to organizational communication. Explain the future directions of organizational communication.

4.11.2. Definition of organization Consciously coordinated social unit composed of two or more people, that functions on a relatively continuous basis to achieve a common goal or set of goals Organizations are complicated, dynamic organisms that take on a personality and culture of their own, with unique rules, hierarchies, structures, and divisions of labor

4.11.3. Definition of organizational communication The sending and receiving of messages among interrelated individuals within a particular environment or setting to achieve individual and common goals

4.11.4. Organizational communication helps Accomplish tasks relating to specific roles and responsibilities of sales, services, and production Acclimate to changes through individual and organizational creativity and adaptation Complete tasks through the maintenance of policy, procedures, or regulations that support daily and continuous operations Develop relationships where human messages are directed at people within the organization-their attitudes, morale, satisfaction, and fulfillment

4.11.5. Two forms of thinking of organizational communication The conventional approach focuses on communication within organizations Second approach is communication as organization -- meaning organizations are a result of the communication of those within them

4.11.6. Organizational Communication origins 1900 - 1940 - Era of Preparation 1940 - 1970 - Era of Identification and Consolidation 1970 - present - Era of Maturity and Innovation

4.11.7. 8 mayor traditions Communication channels Communication climate Network analysis Superior-subordinate communication The information-processing perspective The rhetorical perspective The cultural perspective The political perspective

4.11.8. Critical approaches View organizations as “sites of domination” where certain individuals are marginalized or disadvantaged by oppressive groups or structures. Most often the focus of this line of research involves gender or ethnic identity as they manifest themselves in organizations.

4.11.9. Chronological understanding of Org Comm Classical Management Perspective Focused on worker productivity Machine metaphor Theory of Scientific Management Theory X Human Relations Perspective Focuses on how organizational members relate to one another, and how individuals’ needs influence their performance in organizations The Hawthorne Effect Maslow Hierarchy of Needs Human Resources Perspective Attempts to truly embrace participation by all organizational members, viewing each person as a valuable human resource. Employees are valuable resources that should be fully involved to manifest their abilities and productivity Systems Perspective Concerned with problems of relationships, of structure, and of interdependence rather than with the constant attributes of objects Properties of an organization Cultural Perspective Maintained by organizations Levels

4.11.10. Challenges in Organizational Communication

5. Introduction

5.1. Researching online

5.2. Improving an open source textbook

5.2.1. Based on Creating an Open Source Textbook Class Project: Creating an Open Source Textbook

5.2.2. Survey of Communication Study - Wikibooks, open books for an open world