My Foundations of Education

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My Foundations of Education by Mind Map: My Foundations of Education

1. Equality of Opportunity Chapter 8

1.1. The first response to the Coleman Study is 1982 found that where a student attends school does make a different in student outcome in regards to low-income students. The second response in 1982 found that where a student goes to school often depends on their race or socioeconomic background. Race and class often predicts a student's academic success and where they go to school does not matter.

2. Class- Wealthier families have higher expectations of their children finishing school, while under class family's expectations are low. Education is expensive, so it is harder for the lower class families to pay for higher education. Race has an impact on how much education a student will achieve. The drop out rate of African American and Hispanic-American students is higher than that of white students. There is a higher percentage of white students that can read on an intermediate level than African American and HIspanic-American students. Minorities do not seem to have the same educational opportunities as whites. Today, more women than men are attending college; however, society discriminates against women occupationally and socially.

3. Politics of Education Chapter 2

3.1. The four purposes of education are 1. intellectual- to help students develop reading, writing, and mathematical skills, 2. political- to prepare students and diverse cultural groups for political order and to teach the basic laws of society, 3. social- to teach the students social and moral responsibility, 4. economic- to prepare students for the workforce.

3.2. Conservatives, liberals, and radicals all have different explanations of unequal educational performance. Conservatives believe that the school system gives everyone the chance to succeed. If a student fails, it is because of their own actions. Liberals believe that schools should give equal chances to students that have a disadvantage so that everyone has an equal opportunity. Radicals also believe that some students start school with a disadvantage, but place the blame for failure on the economic system.

4. History of U.S. Education Chapter 3

4.1. In my opinion, the reform movement that had the most influence on education was The Age of Reform: The Rise of the Common School. I believe this was an important step because it was when teacher training and public schools started. In 1837, Horace Mann pushed for a state board of education in which the legislator created that same year. Mann became the first secretary for the state board of education and continued serving for 11 years. In 1839, the first teacher training school was established. Mann had to make everyone see that there was a need for stability, order, and social mobility. Also, public education would be a preparation for citizenship.

4.2. One historical interpretation of education is The Democratic-Liberal School. They believe that the history of US education has progressed into a school system that provides equal education for everyone. Each period of education was an expansion for everyone, not just the privileged, to have the same education. Democratic liberals believe that the US educational system must keep the schools equal and work towards excellence. equality and excellence

5. Sociological Perspectives Chapter 4

5.1. Functional theorists believe that schools work to socialize students. Students are sorted and selected according to their abilities. Conflict theorists believe that there is a struggle when explaining social order, where there is a struggle between students, teachers, and administrators. Interactional theorists believe that functional and conflict theories are unreal. They believe it is important to see what schools are doing daily instead of just looking at the big picture.

5.2. 1. Teacher behavior- Teachers can either have high or low expectations for their students. When students are praised and have high expectations, they will do better than if a teacher has low expectations. 2. Student Peer Groups and Alienation- Often students are placed in groups such as athletic ability, looks, or smartness. The "cool" groups tend to be the athletes and the good looking group. Students that do not fall into these groups are often alienated, which sometimes results in violence. 3. Education and Inequality-Inequality in schools can be based on several things. These include social class differences, race, ethnicity, and gender. Unfortunately, sometimes students are judged on these instead of their abilities. 4. Inadequate schools- Inadequate schools have a part in reproducing inequalities. Many critics have said that students are not being prepared to live productive lives. The minority and poor children were not properly educated by urban education. Suburban and private schools provide a better education for their students. 5.Gender- Gender discrimination has been reduced throughout the years; however, schools may be sending signals that males are more important than females. In most schools, most administrators are male and most teachers are female.

6. Philosophy of Education Chapter 5

6.1. Pragmatism is a philosophy that encourages people to find processes that work in order to achieve their desired ends. The key researchers of pragmatism are George Sanders Peirce, William James, and John Dewey. The generic notion was a belief by Dewey that children are active and always growing. He believed that the students should have freedom and be a part of planning his/her course of study. Dewey believed that the goal of education was to educate the students on how to improve social order. He thought that the schools should prepare the students on how to live in a democratic society. The role of the teacher changes to a facilitator instead of an authoritative figure. He or she encourages, questions, and helps with the planning of the course of study. Methods of instruction was the problem-solving or inquiry method. Students would start by asking questions about what they want to know. Students also went on field trips and worked on projects to learn. The curriculum was an integrated curriculum in which one particular subject would also involve math, science, history, reading, and so on.

7. Schools as Organizations Chapter 6

7.1. My District

7.1.1. Federal Level- State Senators- Richard Shelby and Doug Jones, House of Represenatives- Mo Brooks

7.1.2. Local Level- Senator- Steve Livingston, House of Representatives- Ritchie Horton

7.1.3. State Superintendent- Michael Sentance

7.1.4. Representative on State School Board- Mary Scott Hunter

7.1.5. Local Superintendent- Kevin Dukes

7.1.6. All Members of Local School Board- President- Chad Gorham, Vice President- Charles West, Dr. Angela Guess, Cecil Gant, and Kenneth Story

7.2. School processes can also be identified as cultural qualities of schools. School cultures are hard to change because they are changes are though of as disruptions. Changing the culture of a school would require tons of patience, time, and effort.

8. Curriculum and Pedagogy Chapter 7

8.1. I am an advocate of the developmentalist curriculum. This curriculum is based on the needs and interests of the individual learner instead of what society says each student should learn.

8.2. The Mimetic Tradition of teaching is when the curriculum is given to the learner instead of being discovered. Knowledge is being passed from one person to another. The Transformative Tradition of teaching changes from the teacher leading discussions to the students collaborating with one another to gain knowledge. The teacher becomes more of a facilitator.

9. Educational Inequality Chapter 9

9.1. 1. Anthropologist John Ogbu believes that African American children do not do as well in school because they adapt to their position in their class structure. He also says that schools socialize the African American children to deal with their life chances instead of encouraging them to do better. 2. Bernstein believes that cultural differences are a product of an unequal economic system and schools reward the middle class and not the working class.

9.2. 1. School financing- since public schools receive a majority of their funding from state and local taxes, with local property taxes being a main source, the poorer communities will not receive as much taxes as a community with higher income. 2. Curriculum and Pedagogic Practices- Schools in working class neighborhoods are more likely to have a teacher that uses pedagogic practices and are more likley to have a vocational curriculum.Schools in the middle class are more likely to have more student-centered pedagogic practices and have liberal arts to prepare for college. The upper-class are more likely to attend elite private schools, which prepare them for college. 3. Curriculum and Ability Grouping-

10. Educational Reform Chapter 10

10.1. 1. School business partnerships- In the 1980's, partnerships between schools and businesses were formed because business leaders were concerned that the nation's schools were not getting the graduates ready to revitalize the US economy. Site-based management plans were formed, businesses gave scholarships to poor students, and businesses adopted a school. 2. School to work programs- In the 1990's The School-to-Work Opportunities Act of 1994 was passed to encourage schools to implement the school to work programs. The program was created to allow students to get an education and also explore different careers.

10.2. 1. School Finance Reforms- funding was equalized between all schools. Courts began to recognize that not only funding had to be equalized but the factors outside of the schools also had to be helped. More funding was used in order to eliminate disadvantages among the poorer schools. 2. Connecting school, community, and societal reforms- The schools, community, and society must be connected so students can focus on learning instead of survival. Students must be provided with meaningful learning goals, intelligent accountability systems, equitable resources, adequate resources, and strong professional standards. Also, schools should be organized for student and teacher leaning.