Foundations of Education

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Foundations of Education by Mind Map: Foundations of Education

1. Politics of Education

1.1. Four Purposes of Education

1.1.1. 1. Intellectual- the purpose of this is to teach basic cognitive skills such as reading, writing, and mathematics; to transmit specific knowledge; and to help students acquire higher-order thinking skills.

1.1.2. 2. Political- the purpose of this is inculcate allegiance to the existing political order; to prepare citizens who will participate in this political order; to help assimilate diverse cultural groups into a common political order; and to teach children the basic laws of society.

1.1.3. 3. Social- the purpose of this is to help solve social problems; to work as one of many institutions, such as the family and the church to ensure social cohesion; and to socialize children into the various roles, behaviors, and values of the society.

1.1.4. 4. Economic- the purpose of this is to prepare students for their later occupational roles and to select, train, and allocate individuals into the division of labor.

1.2. Political Perspective: Conservative: 1.The Role of the School- Conservatives see the role of the school as providing the necessary educational training to ensure that the most talented and hard working individuals receive the tools necessary to maximize economic and social productivity. They also believe that schools socialize children into the adult roles to maintain life. This perspective sees the role of the school as important to both economic productivity and social stability. 2.Explanations of Unequal Performance- Conservatives argue that students succeed and fail through hard work and sacrifice. The school system is set up to allow students the opportunity to succeed. But some students may be deficient in some way, or apart of a group who is. 3. Definition of educational problems- The decline of standards. Decline of cultural literacy. Decline of values or of civilizations. Decline of authority.

2. History of U.S. Education

2.1. Education for Women and Blacks- Jean Jacques Rousseau described in Emile, the traditional role of a woman. The role of a woman in Western society was described as a helpmate or homemaker to the male, who was considered the role of provider. Education was viewed as biologically harmful or too stressful to women. By the mid-nineteenth century more girls attended elementary schools. By 1820, this particular movement was making huge improvement. In 1821, Emma Hart Willard opened the Troy Female Seminary in Troy. New York. Education for women was growing during the period before the Civil War, education for blacks was limited. Southerner's forbade the teaching of reading and writing to the slave population. In the North, education was usually separate from popular public school, if provided at all by the public. After the result from the Roberts v. City of Boston case blacks were encouraged to establish their own schools. In 1868, the Freedman's Bureau helped to establish historically black colleges.

3. The Sociology of Education

3.1. 1. Functionalist Theories- Functionalist sociologies begin with a picture of society that stresses the interdependence of the social system; these researchers often examine how well the parts are integrated with each other.

3.2. 2. Conflict Theories- Conflict Theories is where schools are viewed as similar to social battle fields. Where students struggle against teachers, teachers against administrators and so on.

3.3. 3. Interactionist Theories- attempt to make commonplace strange by turning on their heads every day taken-for-granted behaviors and interactions between students and students, between students and teachers. Interactionist theorist are basically the critiques and extensions of the functionalist and conflict perspectives.

3.4. 1. Knowledge and Attitudes- research has shown that the difference in school rules and policies does have an impact in student learning. 2. Teacher Behavior- teachers should be aware of their behavior in and out of the classroom everyday. The way teachers behave can impact students in either a positive or negative way. 3. Student Peer Groups and alienation- Who you surround yourself with during school can impact your education, and the choices you make. 4. Education and inequality- People are not just looked at for how much money they have, but also race, gender, age, and ethnicity. This can make a difference in your education. 5. Inadequate Schools- students who are more poor cannot afford to go to a top school. Some schools do not have the correct resources or funds to prepare and teach students to correct standard. This can hurt students in their education, and life in general.

4. The Philosophy of Education

4.1. Existentialism- Generic Notions- Existentialists pose questions as to how their concerns impact on the lives of individuals. They believe people are placed on earth alone, and must make sense of the chaos they face in life. Sarte believed that "existence precedes essence". This means people must create themselves, and they must create their own meaning. The choices you make in life will help you with that. Key researchers- European philosopher Sorean Kierkegoard(1813-1855). Martin Buber(1878-1965). Kari Jaspers(1883-1969). Jean Paul Sarte(1905-1986). Contemporary Philosopher Maxine Greene. Goal of Education- Existentialists believe that education should stress individuality. It should include discussion of the non-rational and rational world. They believe education should focus on the needs of individuals, cognitively and affectively. They think anxiety generated through conflict should be addressed. Role of the Teacher- Existentialists believe the role of a teacher is very personal, that takes a lot of responsibility. They feel teachers should understand their own "lived worlds" as well as their students to be able to help their students achieve their best. Methods of Instruction- Existentialists view learning as intensity personal. According to them each child has a different learning style, and it is up to the teacher to figure out what works best for the child. Curriculum- They would choose curriculum that was biased toward humanities. Art, drama, and music, because it encourages personal interaction. Literature, because of Greene's "wide awakeness." They believe in exposing children to problems and possibilities at an early age.

5. Schools as Organizations

5.1. Federal Alabama Senators- Richard Shelby(R), Doug Jones(D) House of Representatives- Bradley Byrne(R), Martha Roby(R), Mike Rogers(R), Robert Aderholt(R), Mo Brooks(R), Gary Palmer(R), Terri A. Sewell(D) State Senator- Shay Shelnutt(R) House of Representative- Randall Shed State Superintendent- Michael Sentance Representative on State School Board- Mary Scott Hunter Local Superintendent- Mr. Rodney P. Green Members on School Board- Mr. Ken Benten, Mrs. Jackie T. Sivley, Mr. Bruce McAfee, Ms. William Ferry, Mr. Chris Latta

5.2. 1. Conflict- Conflict allow previous hidden problems, issues, and disagreements to surface. Staff must be prepared to mange and resolve conflict. 2. New behaviors-They should be learned because change requires new relationships and behaviors, this process must include building communication and trust, enabling leadership and initiative to emerge, and learning techniques of communication, collaboration, and conflict resolution. 3. Team building throughout the whole school. Shared decision making must work and give attention to the relationships within school staff. 4. Process and content are interrelated. The process a team uses is just as important as the educational content.

6. Curriculum and Pedagogy

6.1. The curriculum theory in which I advocate is developmentalist curriculum. This curriculum focuses on the needs and interests of the students; not society. This curriculum developed from the aspects of Deweys writings related between the relationship of the child and the curriculum. This particular approach to teaching was student-centered and concerned with relating the curriculum to the child's needs and interests. It stressed relating schooling to life experiences. The teacher was thought of more as a facilitator, rather than a transmitter of knowledge.

7. Equality of Opportunity

7.1. 1. Class- Class can impact educational outcomes in many ways. For example, depending on how the long the student stays in school the more expensive the education gets. Also, the longer the students stays in, more than likely the longer the student will need parental financial support. 2. Race- Race can have a direct impact on how much education he/she is likely to achieve. Statistics show that 10.2% more Hispanics drop out of school than blacks, and 2.2% more blacks drop out than whites between the ages of 16-24. Reading levels between the three races are very different too. 3. Gender- Gender was directly related to his/her educational attainment. Today, females are less likely to drop out of school than males, and more likely to have a higher level of reading proficiency than males. Males out perform females in only one area, math. Society is also known to discriminate against women occupationally and socially.

7.2. The first response claimed that private schools always do better than public schools. The debate was "are these findings as significant as Coleman and his associates claim them to be?" The debate is not resolved, and can be expected to surface with more research and controversy. The second response claimed where an individual goes to school is often related to race and socioeconomic background, but the racial and socioeconomic composition of a school has a greater effect on student achievement than an individual's race and class.

8. Educational Inequality

8.1. 1. Functionalists believe that the role of the school is to provide a fair and meritocratic selection process for sorting out the best and brightest individuals, regardless of family background. 2. Conflict theorists believe that the role of the schooling is to reproduce rather than eliminate inequality.

8.2. 1. School- Financing: How much money a school is funded is based off a combination of revenues from local, state, and federal sources. The majority of funds come from state and local taxes, with local property taxes a significant source. Since property values are higher in more affluent communities, these communities can fund more money for their schools. 2. Effective School Research- If student differences are more important than school differences, then teachers cannot be blamed for the lower academic performance of non-white and working class students. Jenck's admonition that societal change was necessary to improve schools may have made teachers feel less responsible for problems beyond their control, but also left them feeling hopeless, that there was not much they could do. They argued this research took the responsibility away from the schools and teachers, and blamed it on communities and families. 3. Within-School Differences: Curriculum and Ability grouping-At each level of school students are divided differently by their abilities. There is debate among educators and researchers about the necessity,effects, and efficacy of tracking.

9. Educational Reform

9.1. 1. Privatization- The traditional distinction between public and private education became blurred from the 1990s. Private education companies became increasingly involved in public education in a variety of ways. For example, for-profit companies. The Edison Company took over the management of failing schools and districts. 2. Teacher Education- The emergence and development of teacher education as an educational problem was a response to the initial debates concerning the failure of the schools. So, basically if the schools were not doing well, the first place fingers were pointed was at teachers. If in fact, the teachers were the problems they looked deeper into their education.

9.2. 1. School Finance Reforms- Th court ruled in 1990, stating that that more funding was needed to serve the children in the more poorer districts. 2. Full Service and Community Schools- Another way to attack education inequity is to examine and plan to educate not only the whole child, but also the whole community.