Foundations of Education

Plan your projects and define important tasks and actions

Get Started. It's Free
or sign up with your email address
Rocket clouds
Foundations of Education by Mind Map: Foundations of Education

1. Chapter 2 - Politics of Education

1.1. Four Purposes of Education

1.1.1. 1. Intellectual purposes - to teach basic skills or specific knowledge

1.1.2. 2. Political purposes - to teach patriotism and help assimilate diverse cultural groups to a common political order; to teach basic laws to children

1.1.3. 3. Social purpose - to solve social problems and to socialize children to various roles, values and behaviors of society

1.1.4. 4. Economic purposes - prepare students for occupational roles

1.2. Liberal perspecitive

1.2.1. 1. Role of the School - Liberal perspective stresses equal opportunity in schooling while still respecting individuality Schools should balance the needs of society and the needs of the individual

1.2.2. 2. Explanations of Unequal Education Performance - Liberal perspective believes that certain groups in society are at a disadvantage and it is society's responsibility to level the playing field through programs and policies for equal opportunity for all.

1.2.3. 3. Definition of Educational Problems - Poor and minority children are often at a disadvantage so underachievement by these groups is a critical issue; the differences between urban and suburban schools and low economic backgrounds and high economic backgrounds is problem when striving for equality; traditional curriculum often omits different cultures in our pluralistic society.

2. Chapter 3 - History of Education

2.1. Post-World War II Equity Era 1945-1980 - A period in education when the focus shifted to providing a equal opportunity for all regardless of race or economic status. Shift to providing comprehensive secondary education. GI Bill provided opportunity for higher education for many. Desegregation of schools with Brown vs. Board of Education ruling.

2.2. Different Historical Interpretations

2.2.1. Democratic-Liberal School - The history of US education involves a progressive evolution of school systems toward providing equal opportunity for all. The future of US education is optimistic, while the history of school systems has its flaws, the future looks bright was we march toward equality.

3. Chapter 4 - Sociological Perspectives

3.1. Three theoretical perspectivies

3.1.1. 1. Functional Theories - stressing the interdependence of the social systems. Systems work together like parts of a machine. Schools create the moral unity needed for social harmony.

3.1.2. 2. Conflict Theories - emphasizes the conflict between different societal groups for power. Conflict perspective school are like social battlefields that students struggle against teachers, teachers struggle with administration, etc

3.1.3. 3. Interactional Theories - primarily critiques of conflict and functional theories. Interactional theories focus on the micro level by focusing on the everyday actions between teachers and students and students and students. How small actions affect the larger picture.

3.2. Effects of schooling on individuals

3.2.1. 1. Knowledge and attitudes - The more educated individuals tend to be more liberal in political and social attitudes. Education is related to a person's well being and self esteem. Tend to read more and participate in political and public affairs

3.2.2. 2. Employment - The higher the education level of an individual relates to greater employment opportunities.

3.2.3. 3. Mobility - The level and quality of education creates more social and economic mobility in society.

3.2.4. 4. De Facto Segregation - Racially diverse schools benefit minority groups and do not suppress majority groups.

3.2.5. 5. Gender - While girls usually begin school cognitively and socially ahead of boys, by the end of high school girls tend to have lower self esteem and lower aspirations that boys do. Does the gender gap and gender bias in textbooks play a role in this?

4. Chapter 6 - Schools as Organizations

4.1. Major Stakeholders for Jackson County School District

4.1.1. 1. Senator Richard Shelby

4.1.2. 2. Senator Doug Jones

4.1.3. 3. US House of Representative Mo Brooks

4.1.4. 4. State Senator Steve Livingston

4.1.5. 5. State House of Representative Tommy Hanes

4.1.6. 6. State Superintendent Ed Richardson

4.1.7. 7. State School Board Representative Mary Scott Hunter

4.1.8. 8. Jackson County BOE Superintendent Kevin Dukes

4.1.9. 9. Members of Jackson County BOE - Kenneth Storey; Dr. Angela Guess; Cecil Grant; Chad Groham; Charles West

4.2. Elements of Change

4.2.1. 1. Conflict - A necessary part of change which allows hidden problems or issues to surface

4.2.2. 2. New Behaviors - must be learned to create change. New relationships and forms of communication emerge

4.2.3. 3. Team Building - must extend to the entire school. Shared decision making is important with any type of change.

4.2.4. 4. Process and Content - are interrelated. The process in which change comes about is just as important as the new content being developed.

5. Chapter 7 - Curriculum & Pedagogy

5.1. 1. Developmentalist Curriculum Theory - is related to the needs and interest of the students versus the needs of the society. Flexibility is stressed in both what is taught and how it is taught. The teacher is more of facilitator in the classroom.

5.2. 2. Dominant Tradition of Teaching

5.2.1. Mimetic Tradition - based on the viewpoint that the purpose of education is to teach specific knowledge to students

5.2.2. Transformative Tradtion - the function of education is to change the student in a meaningfully way as a whole person, including intellectually, creatively, spiritually and emotionally.

6. Chapter 5 - Philosophy of Education

6.1. Pragmatism - viewed as an American philosophy that encourages individuals to find processes that provide a means to an end. Pragmatists are more concerned with contemporary issues than finding solutions to problems in modern day terms.

6.1.1. 1. Generic Notions - John Dewey's philosophy of education, termed progressive education, proposed that teachers begin with the needs and interests of the children in their classrooms first and allow children to participate in the planning of activities. Dewey noted that children are active, organic beings that have constantly changing needs and developmental levels which need to be changed in order to grow.

6.1.2. 2. Key Researchers - Pragmatism founders include George Sanders Pierce, William James, and John Dewey as well as Frances Bacon, John Locke,and Jean-Jacques Rousseau.

6.1.3. 3. Goal of Education - According to Dewey, schools play a part in the larger project of social progress and improvement. Schools help integrate children into a democratic society that values democratic and co-operative roles. The primary role of education is growth.

6.1.4. 4. Role of the Teacher - Teachers become facilitators, encouraging the children to take an active role in not only their own learning but the planning and implementation of lessons.

6.1.5. 5. Methods of Instruction - Problem- solving or inquiry method of instruction is were students and teachers work together to find answers to questions through field trips and projects. Tradition time blocks are abandoned as well as desks in favor of exploration and tables and chairs that encourage group participation.

6.1.6. 6. Curriculum - Progressive educators see all areas of study interconnected. Through a project on a particular topic the core areas of curriculum such as math, science, reading, writing, music, art, etc are explored. Progressives believe students should start with a contemporary problem and begin to work from the known to the unknown in order to find the solution.

7. Chapter 8 - Equality of Opportunity

7.1. Class - Students in different social classes have different kinds of educational experiences. Education is expensive. Families from upper and middle classes expect students to finish high school and go on to college. Children from upper and middle class families also have greater access to books and speak "standard" English at home both of which leads to higher standardized test scores.

7.2. Race - Race has a direct impact on how much education a person is likely to achieve. Minority students have higher drop out rates and lower reading levels compared to Caucasian students. Often race and class go hand in hand.

7.3. Gender - Today women have higher levels of reading and writing than males. Males have higher levels of math proficiency than females. In the past 20 years gender differences in education have reduced. Society still discriminates against females both occupationally and socially.

7.4. Responses to the Coleman Study (1982) 1. While differences do exist between public and Catholic schools are statistically significant, the differences in learning are negligible. 2. Catholic school seem to advantage low-income minority students, especially in urban areas.

8. Chapter 9 - Educational Inequality

8.1. Two types of cultural differences theory - 1. Anthropologist John Ogbu suggests that school success requires that African-American students deny their own cultural identities and accept the dominant culture of the school which is white middle class culture. 2. Working class and nonwhite students reject the white middle-class culture of academic success and embrace different often anti-school culture which opposes the current school culture.

8.2. School-centered explanations for educational inequality

8.2.1. 1, School financing - Public schools are funded primarily through local, state, and federal taxes with property taxes being the significant source. Since property taxes in wealthier communities are higher they have more access to funds.

8.2.2. 2. Effective School Research - Findings have focused on differences in school resources and quality do not explain between school differences in academic achievement. Something in the school must be affecting student's performances.

8.2.3. 3, Curriculum and Pedagogic Practices - Theorists argue that there are significant differences between the culture and school climate in lower socioeconomic and higher socioeconomic areas.

8.2.4. 4. Within-school Differences - Curriculum and Ability Grouping - In elementary school, students are divided into reading groups and separate classes based on recommendations and standardized tests. Tracking students leads to lower tracks more likely to have more teacher-directed practices and rote learning and higher tracks having more student-centered learning with discussions and thinking-based evaluation.

9. Chapter 10 - Educational Reform

9.1. School-Based Reforms

9.1.1. Privatization - allow private education companies to take over failing public schools or to provide tutoring services under No Child Left Behind Act

9.1.2. Teacher Quality - provide incentives to help retain highly qualified teachers in every school as well as using alternative teacher education programs to recruit college graduates without teaching certification.

9.2. Economic and Community Impact on Education Reform

9.2.1. School Finance Reforms - Supreme Court ruled in 1990 that more funding was needed in poorer school districts. Supplemental programs were required to be provided by the state including preschool, social services, technology alternative education programs, after-school and summer school programs.

9.2.2. Full Service and Community Schools - Community based reforms include full service schools that focus on meeting students' and families' educational, physical, psychological and social needs. Community centers within the neighborhoods that provide a variety of services. These program are targeted to improve at risk neighborhoods.