My Foundations of Education

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My Foundations of Education by Mind Map: My Foundations of Education

1. Politics of Education Chapter 2

1.1. Identify and describe the four purposes of education.

1.1.1. Intellectual purpose of schooling is to teach basic cognitive skills such as reading, writing, and mathematics; to transmit skills such as analysis, evaluation, and synthesis.

1.1.2. Political purpose of schooling is to inculcate allegenceto the existing political order (patriotism); to prepare citizens who will participate in this political order (e.g., in political demographics); to help assimilate diverse cultural groups into a common political order; and to teach the basic laws of the society

1.1.3. Economic purpose of schooling is to prepare students for their later occupational roles and to select, train, and allocate individuals into the division of labor. The degree to which schools directly prepare students for work varies fro society to society, but most schools have at least an indirect role in this process.

1.1.4. Social purpose is to help solve social problems; to work as one of many institutions, such as the family and the church (or synagogue) to ensure social cohesion; and to socialize children into the various roles, behaviors, and values of the society. This process, refereed to by sociologists as socialization, is a key ingredient to the stability of any society.

1.2. The definition of educational problems conservatives refer to a decline of standards, I decline of cultural literacy, the decline of values or of civilization and the decline of authority. Liberals say that schools have often limited the life chances of the poor and minority children and therefore the problem of underachievement by these groups is a critical issue, also schools place too much emphasis on discipline and authority limiting their role in helping students develop as individuals, the different quality and climate between urban and suburban schools most specifically between schools with students of low socioeconomical backgrounds and high socioeconomic backgrounds, and the traditional curriculum leaves out the diverse cultures of the groups that compromise the prayer list. The radical perspective is that the education system has failed the poor, minorities and women through classist, racist and sexist and homophobic policies, the schools have stifled critical understanding of the problems of American society through a curriculum and teaching practices that promote conformity, the traditional curriculum is classist, racist, sexist and homophobic and leaves out the cultures, histories and voices of the oppressed, in general the education system promotes inequality of both opportunity and results.

1.3. 2. Choose and describe a perspective for each of the following:

1.3.1. The role of the school is that the school is an essential component of the American dream of social mobility and equality of opportunity. Conservatibes, liberals, and neo-liberals and radicals have differing views on the role of the school in actually meeting these goals.

1.3.2. 2) explanations of unequal performance; and

1.3.3. The definition of educational problems conservatives refer to a decline of standards, decline of cultural literacy, the decline of values or of civilization and the decline of authority. Liberals say that schools have often limited the life chances of the poor and minority children and therefore the problem of underachievement by these groups is a critical issue, also schools place too much emphasis on discipline and authority limiting their role in helping students develop as individuals, the different quality and climate between urban and suburban schools most specifically between schools with students of low socioeconomic backgrounds and high socioeconomic backgrounds, and the traditional curriculum leaves out the diverse cultures of the groups that compromise the prayer list. The radical perspective is that the education system has failed the poor, minorities and women through classist, racist and sexist and homophobic policies, the schools have stifled critical understanding of the problems of American society through a curriculum and teaching practices that promote conformity, the traditional curriculum is classist, racist, sexist and homophobic and leaves out the cultures, histories and voices of the oppressed, in general the education system promotes inequality of both opportunity and results.

2. History of U.S. Education Chapter 3

2.1. 1. Choose and describe a reform movement that you think has had the most influence on education.

2.1.1. Equal Opportunity included sex, color (desegregation), socioeconomic status. The GI bill helped more enter into higher education. Higher education not just for the rick any more.

2.2. 2. Choose and describ e one historical interpretation of U.S. Education.

2.2.1. Conservative Perspectives:Watered down curriculum to meet the needs of all groups, easier to get into college due to less lower standards, (in my day it was much harder to get into 4 year colleges.) Community colleges are for anybody. and everybody. Not all even want to be there and many do not make it past their first semester.

3. Sociological Perspectives Chapter 4

3.1. 1. Define each of the theoretical perspectives concerning the relationship between school and society: functionalism, conflict theory, and interactionalism.

3.1.1. Functionalism is the theory that all aspects of a society serve a function and are necessary for the survival of that society.

3.1.2. Conflict theory is a theory propounded by Karl Marx that claims society is in a state of perpetual conflict due to competition for limited resources. It holds that social order is maintained by domination and power, rather than consensus and conformity.

3.1.3. Interactionism in sociology is a theoretical perspective in which society is thought to be a product of the everyday social interactions among millions of people. ... George Herbert Mead, Max Weber, and Herbert Blumer have all made several contributions to the interactionism theory

3.2. 2. Identify and describe 5 effects of schooling on individuals that you think have the greatest impact on students as explained in the book (there are 10 between pages 121 - 128).

3.2.1. Employment: chances increase with college education

3.2.2. De Facto Segregation: black students in a mixed school have higher graduation rates and tend to go to college more often than in school that are mostly black.

3.2.3. Inadequate schools: suburban schools and privat schools tend to have more and better resources available.

3.2.4. Gender: although the gap is getting smaller, girls usually start school being stronger than boys academically. Boys tend to pass them up at the high school level. Boys have historically been above girls in math and science, but girls are now closing that gap.

3.2.5. Tracking: putting students on educational tracks. Many studies indicate students are put on tracks because of their race or socioeconomic status.

4. Philosophy of Education Chapter 5

4.1. Describe the particular world view of one of student- centered philosophyof education (pragmatism or existentialism). Include the following information: generic notions, key researchers, goal of education, role of teacher, method of instruction, and curriculum.

4.1.1. Generic Notes: Existentialists believe we come into this world alone and alone we must make some sence of the chaos encountered. We as individuals create our own meaning through choices we make.

4.1.2. Goal of Education: Existentialists believe in promoting the individual. Instruction should promote non-rational as well as rational world.

4.1.3. Roll of the teacher: Must know their own "lived world" identity well as well as the students and encourage the students own "lived world". Must encourage the student to be "wide awake" to them-self and the world around him.

4.1.4. Methods of instruction: Do not like today's methods of teaching. believe that every child learns different and the teacher should be responsible for knowing every child in the class.

4.1.5. Curriculum: Lean towards the humanities, Literature, Arts, Drama, Music encourage personal interaction. Expose students early to problems and possibilities as well as the horrors and accomplishments humans are capable of producing.

4.1.6. Key researchers: Nineteenth century, Martin Buber, Karl Jaspers, Jean Paul Satre, and Contemporary Edmund Husserl, Martin Heidegger, and Maurice Merleau-Ponty

5. Schools as Organizations Chapter 6

5.1. Identify and describe the elements of change within

5.1.1. 1. school processes-schools are political in structure causing change in them to be difficult. Reading the same book taking the same multiple choice test. Needs to be changed because everyone learns different. Center school on the learners needs

5.1.2. 2. school cultures-There will be conflict, new behaviors to learn, team building to take place.

5.2. Identify major stakeholders in YOUR district by name (Federal Tennessee senators (Lamar Alexander and Bob Corker) and House of Representative (Scott DesJarlais), state senator (vacant) and house of representative (Pat Marsh) , state superintendent ( Dr. Sara Heyburn Morrison), representative on state school board (Mr. Gordon Ferguson), local superintendent (Bill Heath), and all members on local school board (Sammy Tucker, Kevin Posey, Stan Golden, Johnny Collins, Veronica King, Jennifer Haynes, Jerry Pendergass, Thomas Stevenson)

6. Curriculum and Pedagogy Chapter 7

6.1. 2. Identify and describe the two dominant traditions of teaching.

6.1.1. Transformative

6.1.1.1. Tradition describe what the teacher will be able to accomplish, focuses on transforming the students character morals and virtue. Three forms including personal modeling soft and use of Narrative.

6.1.2. Mimetic

6.1.2.1. Today school system (as seen by most people). Knowledge is presented to the learner rather than the student learning through discovery by themselves. 5 steps include test present perform/evaluate reward/fix, enter remedial loop advanced.

6.2. 1. Explain a curriculum theory which you advocate humanist, social efficiency, developmentalist, or social meliorism.

6.2.1. Developmentalist-Curriculum looks towards the needs of the student rather than the needs of society. Flexibility in curriculum to deal with real life experiences.

7. Equality of Opportunity Chapter 8

7.1. Describe how class, race, and gender each impact educational outcomes.

7.1.1. Class

7.1.1.1. Although the same amount of money is collected from the federal government for each student between a high-income school and I lower income school, there is generally better equipment in the school where students families have higher incomes. Although charter schools have come about to give students in the lower income areas that choice of changing schools. This is only effective if the parents can get their students to those schools due to transportation availability for the students.

7.1.2. Race

7.1.2.1. Among students 16 to 24-year-old years old 5.2% of white drop out of school whereas 9.3% of African-American students and 17.6% of the Spanish American students are likely to drop out of school. IAmong 17 year olds 89% of white students will be able to read an intermediate level however only 66% of African-American students have reached that level reading proficiency and 70% of Hispanic American students are reading at an intermediate level. Explanations as to why minorities compared to whites very. Minorities do not receive the same education all up to opportunities as whites and the rewards for educational attainment are significantly less.

7.1.3. Gender

7.1.3.1. In general women are better at reading and writing in males are better in math Mattix proficiency. In the last 20 years the differences between men and women in terms of educational attainment have been reduced. Women are now attending post secondary institutions more than men now. Although men usually attend the more prestigious institutions where the women are attending institutions that are less academically and socially prestigious.

7.2. What were the two responses to the Coleman Study from 1982? (T h ere are several but focus on 1982 responses.)

7.2.1. Study as conducted in response to provisions of civil rights act of 1964 is an example of a social survey. Also instrument of national policy making and equality of education opportunity

8. Educational Inequality Chapter 9

8.1.  Explain at least two types of cultural differences theory (page 424-427)

8.1.1. Familial students are disadvantage because they have been raised in a household where hard work is stressed more than academic treatment room.

8.1.2. Cultural suggest that man white families do not have the resources such as computers and books and this causes them to be disadvantaged.

8.2. Describe at least four school - centered (not student - centered) explanations for educational inequality.

8.2.1. School financing. The difference between finding in fluid in for districts are not equal. The differences are not federally funded dollars, but they come from local taxes where in a fluent neighborhood there are more tax dollars available through the property taxes.

8.2.2. Effective school literature having the proper textbooks to learn is the sunshine when schools are not funded equally the schools with less money tend to not have the new were textbooks and this affects the student outcomes.

8.2.3. Between school differences curriculum and padagogic practices. Schools may have different climates and have verying ways that students are taught.

8.2.4. Gender and schooling explains why there are limited educational opportunities in life chances were women and also provides curriculum materials directed toward the role that I man and woman may use from his Storico data.

9. Educational Reform Chapter 10

9.1. Describe two school-based reforms (school-based, school-business partnerships, privatization, school-to-work programs, teacher education or teacher quality).

9.1.1. School to work programs intention was to extend vocational emphasis to 9 college-bound students gaining skills necessary for successful employment and stress The importance of work-based learning. Classroom instruction is based on high academic in business defined occupational skills standards.

9.1.2. Voucher programs initiated in the 1990s in states of Wisconsin Ohio and Florida. Challenged in Supreme Court for separation of church and state did not get overturned. Ohio state department did a study of the voucher program and found no significant difference and achievement between students in their public school peers.

9.2. Describe at least two societal, economic, community, or political reforms that impact education .

9.2.1. State intervention: Starting in the year 2000 (23 states) the possibility of State and Mayoral control was initiated for failing schools as a last resort.

9.2.2. School finance reform more funding was needed in for school districts. Funding equalize between urban and suburban school districts. Was determined that extra funding should be distributed in order to provide additional programs to illuminate disadvantages in the poor school district.