Foundations of Education

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Foundations of Education by Mind Map: Foundations of Education

1. History of U.S. Education (Ch.3)

1.1. 1. Choose and describe a reform movement that you think has had the most influence on education- I think the reform movement by Horace Mann pushing for free public education had the most influence on education. The Morrill Act was passed not long after his movement, which produced funding for land grant universities. These two events got the ball rolling for more educational reform in the future.

1.2. 2. Choose and describe one historical interpretation of U.S. Education. The Democratic-Liberal School: Democratic-liberals believe that the history of US education involves the progressive evolution of a school system committed to providing equality of opportunity for all. They suggest expansion of educational opportunities to larger segments of the population and reject the conservative view of schools as elite institutions. The Common School Era was the first step in opening US education to all. View equity of excellence as compromises due to tension Equity and excellence are seen as ideal, and the US education system must move closer to each.

2. Philosophy of Education (Ch. 5)

2.1. Describe the particular world view of one of student-centered philosophy of education (pragmatism or existentialism). Include the following information: generic notions, key researchers, goal of education, role of teacher, method of instruction, and curriculum. Pragmatism- It is viewed as an American philosophy that encourages people to find processes that work in order to achieve their desired ends. Pragmatists are generally more interested in contemporary issues and discovering solutions to present-day terms. They are also action oriented, experientially grounded, and will generally pose questions. Pierce, James, and Dewey are examples of pragmatists. Bacon is another pragmatist who developed inductive reasoning. John Locke stated the mind is a tabula rosa, a blank tablet, and we learn through senses. Rousseau believed people were naturally good. Generic Notions- Dewey held a progressive view of education. His form of pragmatism was instrumentalism and experimentalism. Dewey thought educators should focus on the needs and interests of the child in the classroom. He said children are active, organic beings, growing and changing, so they required a course of study that reflected this. Freedom, responsibility, and democracy were important as well. Goal of education- Dewey believed the school should function as preparation for life in a democratic society. He also believed that schools should balance the needs of society and community on one hand and the needs of the individual on the other. The primary role of education was growth. Social reform was another goal. He wanted to children integrated into a democratic society. Role of teacher- The teacher should be seen as a facilitator instead of an authoritarian figure. The teacher must discipline, encourage, offer suggestions, question, and implement curriculum. Method of instruction- Children should learn individually and in groups.

3. Sociological Perspectives (Ch. 4)

3.1. 1. Define the theoretical perspective concerning the relationship between school and society: functionalism, conflict theory, and interactionalism. Functionalism- Functionalists view society as a kind of machine, where one part articulates with another to produce the dynamic energy required to make society work. Emile Durkheim was a functionalist. He believed moral values were the foundation of society. Create structures, program, and curricula that are technically advanced, rational, and encourage social unity. Conflict Theory- In this view, the glue of society is economic, political, cultural, and military power. Do not see the relation between school and society as unproblematic or straightforward. Conflict sociologists emphasize struggle. Students struggle against teachers, teachers against administration. Karl Marx is the intellectual founder of the conflict school in the sociology of education. Interactionalism- Primarily critiques and extensions of the functional and conflict perspectives. This focuses on interactions and behaviors of students and between students and teachers. Overanalyzing is a good term to describe interactionalism. Basil Berstein says structural aspects of the education system and the interactional aspects of the system reflect each other and must be viewed wholistically.

3.2. 2. Identify and describe 5 effects of schooling on individuals that you think have the greatest impact on students as explained in the book (there are 10 between pages 121-128). 1) Inadequate schools- Students who attend suburban schools and private schools get a better education experience than other children. Differences between schools and school systems result in inequalities. 2) Tracking- it has been shown that tracking decisions are often based on other criteria, such as race or class. "High-ability" students often spend more time on actual teaching and learning, while "low-ability" students experience more alienation and authoritarian teachers. 3) Gender- Men and women are not viewed equally. There are pay differences and differences in opportunity, They even say girls have lower self esteem and lower aspirations than boys do. Textbooks are also biased against women. The gender gap in education has all but disappeared, but girls are closing the gaps drastically. 4) Teacher behavior- Role strain can happen due to countless jobs teachers have to juggle. Labels that teachers apply can influence student performance, as well as teacher expectations. Persell found that when teachers demanded more from their students and praised them more, students learned more and felt better about themselves. A positive teacher has a better affect than a negative teacher. 5) Education and mobility- most Americans believe more education leads to economic and social mobility: individuals rise and fall on their merit. Turner called this contest mobility. Hopper made the point of a difference between educational amount and educational route. That is, the number of years of education is one measure of educational attainment, but where people go to school affects their mobility.

4. Schools as Organizations (Ch. 6)

4.1. 1) Identify major stakeholders in YOUR district by name (1. Federal level - senators and House of Representative; local level - senators and house of representatives, state superintendent, representative on state school board, local superintendent, and all members of local school board) Federal level: Senator- Doug Jones and Richard Shelby. House of Representatives- Bradley Byrne, Martha Roby, Mike Rogers, Robert Aderholt, Mo Brooks, Gary Palmer, Terri Sewell. Local level- (Morgan County) Senators- Richard Shelby and Doug Jones. House of Representatives- Mo Brooks. State Superintendent- Dr. Ed Richardson. Members of local school board- (Morgan County) Mr. Jimmy Dobbs, Mr. Tom Earwood, Mr. Adam Glenn, Mr. John Holley, Mr. Paul Holmes, Mr. Billy Rhodes, Mr. Mike Tarpley.

4.2. 2) Identify and describe the elements of change within 1. school processes and 2. school cultures. School processes- Because schools are so deeply political, effecting change within them is very difficult. Groups and individuals have vested interests. Many conflicts, such as pay, productivity, and professional standards, are resolved through negotiations. This is because schools are bureaucracies. Rules of procedure are designed to enforce fairness. School cultures- Changing the cultures of schools requires patience, skill, and good will. It is not an easy task for teachers, administrators, parents, community members, and students to arrive at consensus. Teachers must be at the forefront of educational change and the definition of the profession must be redefined. New behaviors must be learned to achieve change in processes or culture.

5. Curriculum and Pedagogy (Ch. 7)

5.1. 1. Explain a curriculum theory which you advocate (humanist, social efficiency, developmentalist, or social meliorist) Developmentalist Curriculum- This theory focuses on the needs and interests of the students rather than the needs of society. It emphasizes the process of teaching as well as its content. This progressive approach is student centered and relates curriculum to the needs and interests of each child at particular developmental stages. It stresses flexibility in both what and how curriculum is taught. The development of each student's individual capacity is emphasized. Another important aspect is relating schooling to the life experiences of each child in a way that would make education come alive in a meaningful manner. The teacher is a facilitator rather than a transmitter of knowledge. This theory is prominent in teacher education programs.

5.2. 2. Identify and describe the two dominant traditions of teaching. 1) Traditional approaches to the curriculum have been concerned with the science of the curriculum. These approaches view the curriculum as objective bodies of knowledge and examine the ways in which this knowledge may be designed, taught, and evaluated. 2) Using a technical-rational model, traditional curriculum theorists and curriculum planners are not concerned with why the curriculum looks as it does, but rather with how it can be effectively designed and transmitted to students. Curriculum is designed using goals and objectives and evaluates in terms of effectiveness to student learning.

6. Politics of Education (Ch. 2)

6.1. 1) Four Purposes of Education -*Intellectual- Teach basic cognitive skills such as reading, writing, and mathematics to transmit specific knowledge. *Political- inculcate allegiance to the existing political order, to prepare citizens who will participate in this political order, help assimilate diverse cultural groups into a common political order, and to teach children the basic laws of society. *Social- help solve social problems, to work as one of many institutions to ensure social cohesion, and socialize children into the various roles, behaviors, and values of the society. *Economic- Prepare children for their later occupational roles, and to select/train individuals into the division of labor.

6.2. 2) Conservative Perspective: 1) the role of the school is to provide the necessary educational training to ensure that the most talented/hard-working individuals receive the tools to maximize economic and social productivity, socialize children into adult roles, and transmit cultural traditions. 2) explanations of unequal performance are that the children rise and fall on their own intelligence, hard work, and initiative, and that achievement is based on hard work and sacrifice. If they do not succeed, they may be deficient in some manner. 3) definition of educational problems: decline in standards, decline of cultural literacy, decline of values/civilization, decline of authority, and stifled by bureaucracy and inefficiency.

7. Equality of Opportunity (Ch. 8)

7.1. 1. Describe how class, race, and gender each impact educational outcomes. Class impacts educational outcomes due to differences in socioeconomic class. Students who come from wealthier families have better opportunity to stay in school longer since their funds allow them to do so. Families who may be lower in the socioeconomic class may not be able to afford to send their children to college. Class can also affect the resources a family has that relates to academic achieve, such as books. Race has a direct impact on how much education individuals receive. Segregation leads to lower academic proficiency in minorities. It is also said that minority students receive fewer and inferior educational opportunities than white students. Gender differences between men and women have been reduced, but women are still sometimes viewed as less efficient than men in academics. For example, men tend to be favored over women in subjects like mathematics, and are projected to do better in postsecondary institutions. Society discriminating against women occupationally and socially can also have an impact on educational outcomes.

7.2. 2. What were the two responses to the Coleman Study from 1982? (There are other responses but you focus ONLY on the two from 1982.) The first response stated private schools perform better than public schools in every category. This made them believe that differences among schools do make a difference. The second response is where an individual goes to school is often related to their race and socioeconomic background. Borman and Dowling said ending segregation in schools would help raise academic achievement for both races attending the school. They do not think the school matters, but the people who are in it is what makes the difference.

8. Educational Inequality (Ch. 9)

8.1. 1) Explain at least two types of cultural differences theory: 1- Working-class and nonwhite students are resisting the dominant culture of the schools. From this point of view, these students reject the white middle-class culture of academic success and embrace a different, often antischool culture. Research by Willis on working-class boys in England showed their rejection of school and resistance to academic success. They rather drop out of school to work. 2- Anti-school culture of working-class suburban adolescents. In a study regarding suburban life in the New York-New Jersey metropolitan area, students cared more about music and automobiles instead of academic life. Ogbu suggests that subordinate groups often see little reason to embrace the culture of schooling, as they do not believe it will have value for them. He feels this type of resistance may be a form of cultural adaptation to the realities of economic life.

8.2. 2) Describe at least four school-centered (not student-centered) explanations for educational inequality. 1- School financing: Kozol found vast differences in funding between districts. Public schools in affluent suburbs received more funding than public schools in poor inner cities. This is seen as unequal, and the inequality of funding is not moral but political. 2- Effective school research: This is based on a climate of high expectations, strong and effective leadership, accountability processes, monitoring of student learning, high degree of time on task, and flexibility to experiment and try new things. Edmonds helped establish these steps. It was the findings of Coleman and Jencks that began the talk about within-school and between-school differences. Edmonds said students of lower-socioeconomic backgrounds should be included in the studies as well. 3- Between-school differences: This focused on school climate, whether it be authoritarian or more student-centered. Some environments allow students to dream different dreams and have different life expectations. This study was trying to prove schools affect educational outcomes. Bernstein felt your class told what type of school you would attend and what type of teacher you would have. There has been growing support of class-based school differences, but they are trying to figure out why they exist. 4- Within-school differences: This focuses on curriculum and ability grouping. Tracking is debated. Functionalists find it as a valuable tool, while conflict theorists see tracking as reproducing inequality. Shanker says education in the US assumes students in lower tracks are not capable of doing academic work and the schools then do not offer challenging curriculum. It is also said tracking can be a form of discrimination. Although, it is believed tracking helps explain the variation in academic achievement of students in different tracks.

9. Educational Reform (Ch. 10)

9.1. 2)Describe at least two societal, economic, community, or political reforms. 1- No Child Left Behind. NCLB is the most comprehensive federal legislation on education ever. It was a by-partisan bill. NCLB was signed into effect in 2002. It was based on four principles of reform: Accountability, flexibility, research-based reforms, and parental options. NCLB brought about large amounts of testing to measure performance. Standards such as the AYP were made, and if they were not met schools could be restructured. 2- Race to the Top went into effect in 2009. It was advocated by the Obama Administration. The purpose of Race to the Top is to help aid stats in meeting No Child Left Behind. It has given around $4.35 billion in aid. Race to the Top also provides waivers for states. Common Core and charter schools expanded in order to receive grants.

9.1.1. 1) Describe two school-based reforms (school-based, school-business partnerships, privatization, school-to-work programs, teacher education or teacher quality). 1- School choice: school choice is seen as very political. Some support it while others do not. Parents may want to be able to choose to send their children to public, private, or charter schools. Intersectional choice plans include public and private schools. Intrasectional school choice policies include only public schools. Intrdistrict choice plans refer to any option available to students within a given public school district. Many are against charter schools because they feel it takes money away from public schools, and they are not sure if they work. Vouchers were also put into effect so students could be removed from one school and placed in another. 2- Privatization: From the 1990s, the distinction between public and private education became blurred. Private education companies increasingly became involved in public education. For-profit companies began taking over failing schools. However, it is uncertain as to if this is helping the success rate of the schools.