Chapter 19

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Chapter 19 by Mind Map: Chapter 19

1. Formed in February 1861 • Location: Met in Montgomery, Alabama and formed the Confederacy (Later moved to Richmond, VA) Why? Answer: to bleed out resources from Washington, DC • President of the Confederacy (South) was Jefferson Davis – former Secretary of War “the time for compromise is over”

2. Stowe and Helper: Literary Incendiaries

2.1. Uncle Tom’s Cabin – Harriet Beecher Stowe (Abolitionist from Ohio) - 1852 *Written in response to the ungodliness of slavery and the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850. Focus: Immorality of slavery (especially the splitting of families) - “God wrote it.” – Stowe Connect to Second Great Awakening (religious reform) - post Calvinistic mentality (pre-destination/pre- determination) - focused on individuality When introduced to Lincoln- “So, you’re the Little lady that started this great war!”

2.2. International reactions – Commoners of London and Paris enjoyed the portrayal of Northern American life against slavery - “Tom Mania” (2) Impending Crisis of the South – Hinton Helper from North Carolina Point: Argue statistics of the economic blow to the non-slave holder. - Hated the Southern planter (*elite)

3. Kansas-Nebraska Territory

3.1. Stephen Douglas Provided: Popular Sovereignty S received: a chance to argue for slavery N received: a chance to argue against slavery Union received: Organization / Railroad

3.2. Both Northern abolitionists and Southern slavocrats (border ruffians from Missouri) turned this into a battleground due to slavery. Kansas want to become a SLAVE state!

4. John Brown

4.1. abolitionist Sent by God “in revenge for Sack of Lawrence” “a man made of the stuff of saints” - Moved to Kansas from Ohio to abolish the slavery argument - Spilled into Osawatomie Creek then into Pottawatomie

5. Violence in the Senate / Sumner Vs. Brooks / Caning of Sumner (May, 1856)

5.1. Sen. Charles Sumner (Mass. / northerner abolitionist) writes a speech entitled “Crime against Kansas” (attacks slavery issues, fugitive slave laws and the Kansas-Nebraska Act) – later to become the “rallying or battle cry against slavery” • Congressman Preston Brooks (South Carolina Congressman / southerner) attacks Sumner in the Senate Chamber • Brooks caned Sumner in the head until it broke (brain damage) / Southerners presented Brooks with an other cane with the inscription “Hit Him Again!!!!! • Sumner went to Europe for surgery • Mass. Elected Sumner, ceremoniously, to an empty seat.

6. Dred Scott

6.1. (1856) Slave owner took Dred Scott (slave) from Missouri & lived in a FREE territory (Illinois) for 4 years - later, returned to Missouri, owner died...Dred Scott begins a lawsuit for the grant of freedom for him and his wife • Missouri Supreme Court ruled against • Dred Scott appeals and Supreme Court “upheld” the Missouri Decision • Dred Scott V. Sandford • African American citizenship does not occur until Reconstruction (1865-1877) with the 14th Amendment

7. Financial Clash of 1857

7.1. More negative psychologically than economically (lack of trust in banking, federal government)

7.1.1. Causes: – Cali gold leads to inflated prices of goods – Crimean War *(overstimulated the growth of wheat and grain) = leads to “Speculation”

7.1.2. Results: (1) thousands of businesses failed (2) Unemployment (3) Federal government Homestead Acts – 160 acres of free land for Westerners

8. 1858 Senatorial Race

8.1. Democrats: Stephen Douglas • Republicans: Abraham Lincoln (“New” Party – formed in 1854) ABE – Once a Free Soiler, now a Republican – both believed in Anti-Extension of slavery.

9. 1860 Presidential Race

9.1. Lincoln – Republican • Douglas – Northern Democrats • Breckinridge – Southern Democrat: Didn’t prefer Douglas because of the disconnection to the Lecompton Constitution and the Freeport Doctrine. Promoted extension of slavery and annexation of slave-populated Cuba • Bell – Constitutional Union Party – into compromise.

10. Confederate States of America / C.S.A.

11. Crittenden Compromise

11.1. REACTIONS: Northern – Strict Constructionists were angry Southern – Excited for the spread of slavery West – created division (once Pop. Sov. In Utah and New Mexico now is split.) Taney – Angry because of the Dred Scott Decision Lincoln – vetoed the compromise, only worsen the problem Effect on Compromise of 1850: repealed Effect on Kansas-Nebraska Act: repealed Stephen Douglas – Angry because of the loss of popular sovereignty