Conflict and Change

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Conflict and Change by Mind Map: Conflict and Change

1. Conflict

1.1. Rebellion of 1837 in Upper Canada

1.1.1. Mackenzie had given up on peaceful reform He encouraged his supporters to take up arms

1.1.2. Mackenzie's supporters began to gather at Montogomery's Tavern in early December 1837

1.1.3. Mackenzie's troops were a ragged band of farners, workers and unemployed people Their weapons that they carried were not strong enough to defend Toronto

1.1.4. In early December, Mackenzie led about 400 supporters south along Younge Street

1.1.5. In the end, Mackenzie lost and he fled to the countryside, crossed the border to the United Stated When the government gave amnesty to all former rebels in that year, Mackenzie returned to Toronto. He resumed his career as a writer and politician Two of Mackenzie's key supporters in 1837, were captured and hanged as traitors

1.1.6. Mackenzie hesitated for 3 days, waiting for more supporters to arrive This gave a chance to Bond Head, organizing his troops in the defence of Toronto

1.2. Undemocratic Governments

1.2.1. The Decline of seigneurial system the seigneurs decided to increase their incomes raising taxes and rents that they charged their habitants

1.2.2. Transportation Upper and Lower Canada did not cooperate with each other This made it more difficult to make improvements, such as better transportations

1.2.3. Government officials came from only a small group of people

1.3. Rebellion of 1837 in Lower Canada

1.3.1. The Battle of Saunt-Denis and Saint-Charles Fighting broke out in Lower Canada in late November 1837 At Saint-Denis, armed Patriote supporters captured a seigneur's manor At Saint-Charles, an army troop approached a Patriote camp that contained about 100 armed rebels The army charged the camp, killing many of its defenders This battle demonstrated the determination of the government to suppress the rebellion

1.3.2. The Battle of Saint-Eustache Sir John Colborne was commander of the British army in North America In mid December, he led a force of 1200 well-armed and disciplined regular troops against an armed Patriote camp at Saint-Eustache, northwest if Montreal The rebels tried to defend themselves in buildings, including a Catholic Church in the community About 100 rebels were killed, and many were taken prisoner This battle proved that the rebels did no have the power to defeat the army

1.3.3. Hunters' Lodges Many Americans living near the border thought that the rebellions might lead to a British defeat, so they were anxious to help the Partriotes Rebels who had fled tro theUnited States began to organize groups to invade Lower and Upper Canada They attracted many American members By mid 1838, there were 40 000 to 60 000 members in the lodges

2. Change

2.1. Different Acts

2.1.1. Union Act it remained in effect for only 26 years In 1867, a new Act replaced it The British North America Act created the Canadian Condederation The Act established the rules for the new coutry - Canada

3. Key People

3.1. Sir Francis Bond Head

3.1.1. Background 1793 - 1875 [ 82 years old ] He was a soldier in the British army He retired as a major in 1825

3.1.2. Achievements In 1835, he was appointed lieutenant-governor of Upper Canada He appointed Reformers to the executive council He ignored the council's advice, and when they protested. he told them to change their views or resign In 1836, the legislative assumbly passed a resolution criticizing Bond Head's behaviour and his interference in elections He responded by shutting down the assembly and calling new elections

3.1.3. Significance After the Rebellion of 1837, the British government lost confidence in Bond Head It recalled him to London and appointed a replacement He never again held a position in government

3.2. Louis-Joseph Papineau

3.2.1. Background 1786 - 1871 [ 85 years old ] He was one of Lower Canada's privileged people His father was a seigneurs He was born in Montreal, and studied to become a lawyer Soon later, he became interested in politics, and was elected to the legisative assembly in 1809

3.2.2. Achiecements He supported reform He believed that the elected assembly should have more power than the appointed parts of governement In 1823, he travelled to London, England, to try to persuade the British government to reform the system in Lower Canada The British were unwilling to do this, so Papineau returned to Lower Canada He spent years trying to increase support for reform In 1834, he published the Ninety-Two Resolutions, a list of demands for reform Many of his supporters wanted to rebel against the government He believed that they could achieve reform through peaceful means

3.2.3. Significance Initially, his voice of moderate reform in the 1830s he tried to achieve reform through peaceful means, but eventually discovered that this was not possible

3.3. William Lyon Mackenzie

3.3.1. Background 1795 - 1861 [ 66 years old ] He was born in Scotland and came to Upper Canada in 1820 He was a printer by trade, and found work with a newspaper

3.3.2. Achievements He was elected to the legislative assembly in 1828 as a strong supporter of reform But, he was expelled in 1831 for publishing libels (false and damaging statements about a person) During the election of 1836, he published his support of the Reform Party in his newspaper The Reformers lost the election, and Mackenzie blamed the lieutenant-governor for openly supporting the Family Compact He admired the United States for its revolution against Britain in the 1770s He also admired the republic the United States had created He hoped that Upper Canada would have its own revolution in the 1830s so he organized a rebellion to start this revolution

3.3.3. Significance Mackenzie wrote vicious things about his political enemies He led an illegal rebellion against the Crown But he was one of the few people with courage to stand up against a government he said was corrupt and tyrannical The government of Ontario has since erected a statue of him at the provincial legialature, in Toronto