My Foundations of Education

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My Foundations of Education by Mind Map: My Foundations of Education

1. Politics of Education: Chapter 2

1.1. Purpose

1.1.1. 1. Intellectual-schools should provide intellectual growth for teachers/staff and children.

1.1.2. 2. Political and Civic-provide equal education for all cultures and communities.

1.1.3. 3. Economic-education makes a difference in the lives of the children and motivate teachers/staff to a higher level.

1.1.4. 4. Social-to develop social and moral responsibility of the teachers/staff to model for the children

1.2. Conservative Perspective

1.2.1. 1. Role of the school-believes that individuals are given the educational training and tools necessary for grooming children to be productive adults and have social and economic stability.

1.2.2. 2. Unequal Performances-believes that it is up to the individual to perform at their potential or not. They adapted Reagan's individual initiative policy.

1.2.3. 3. Educational Problems-Conservatives definition of educational problems were a decline in standards, decline of cultural literacy, decline of values or of civilization, and decline of authority.

2. History of U.S. Education: Chapter 3

2.1. Reform Movement-Common School to me had the most influence on education. It is free publicly funded elementary schools led by Horace Mann, "Father of American public schools". This reform was created to make education available to more children. It was widely attractive to the middle class. Mann thought that education should be universal, non-sectarian, free, and aims should be social efficiency, civic virtue, and character rather than mere learning. Concerns were stability and social mobility. Radicals thought that the common school was a pernicious device for teaching life skills.

2.2. Historical Interpretation-Conservative Interpretation of US Education was developed by William Graham Sumner. The positive beliefs were that change was inevitable and only the strongest, fittest would survive. They believed that it was up to the individual on whether they perform to their fullest or not. They also believed that Capitalism was the most productive form of free market and respectable towards humans. They felt that people had to adapt to change or they would fall behind.

3. Sociological Perspectives: Chapter 4

3.1. Theoretical Perspective of School & Society

3.1.1. 1. Functionalism-system of thinking that the social system looks at society from a large scale of prospective. It stresses the interdependence of the social system. They view society as a MACHINE. Emile Durkheim, a sociologist, was one of the first ones to show a relationship between school and society. He believed education was of critical importance for social cohesion and harmony.

3.1.2. 2. Conflict Theory-Karl Marx, the intellectual founder of the conflict school in the sociology of education. Conflict sociologists do not believe the relationship between school and society as unproblematic or straightforward. They feel there are student struggles against the teachers, teachers against admin.

3.1.3. 3. Interactionalism-critiques and extensions of the conflict and functional perspectives. It attempts to make the student to student relationships and student to teacher relationships not to be taken for granted. Basil Bernstein. Education should be viewed wholistically.

3.2. 5 Effects of Schooling on Individuals

3.2.1. 1. Inadequate Schools-Most obvious way that schools reproduce inequalities, especially in Urban Education. Failures are with minorities and poor students, schools and school systems.

3.2.2. 2. Gender-males and females are not created equal in the United States. There is an obvious gender gap in the U.S. society. It persist for working class and lower class females. From the start females are ahead of boys but by the end of high school the roles are reversed. Research associates this with the ratio of women to men in the teaching profession. Schools reproduce social inequalities.

3.2.3. 3. Tracking-Has a critical impact on student mobility. It refers to the placement in curricular programs based on their abilities and inclinations, sometimes race and class. Students on "high ability" tracks receive better teachers, materials, facilities, and extracurricular activities. Can effect cognitive development.

3.2.4. 4. Peer Groups & Alienation-Schools reproduce students for society by sorting and selecting students which causes alienation and violence between the teachers themselves and the students. Schools can help develop cultures that shape the students' educational experience if given the opportunity.

3.2.5. 5. Teacher Behavior-Teachers wear many hats in a classroom. There are a lot of stressors they have. I believe they are not allowed to teach due to all the restraints and time sensitive materials that have to be covered in the short length of time they have. Teachers can make or break a student by their attitude and behavior that is modeled in the classroom.

4. Philosophy of Education: Chapter 5

4.1. Existentialism

4.1.1. 1. Generic Notions-an individual philosophy, how their concerns impact on the lives of individuals, it is up to the individual how they manage themselves through life.

4.1.2. 2. Goal of Education-focuses on the needs of individuals, education should stress individuality, discussion of non-rational and rational world, tensions of living in the world.

4.1.3. 3. Role of Teacher-teachers should understand the world they live in as well as their students for maximum achievement, take risk and be exposed to resistant students, and work constantly for their student to become, "wide awake". Its an intensely personal role.

4.1.4. 4, Method of Instruction-each child has a different learning style, up to the teacher to discover what works best for each child, through questioning, activities, and, working together with the students.

4.1.5. 5. Curriculum-focused towards humanities, literature especially. Art, drama, music, encourage personal interaction, exposing to problems and possibilities, horrors and accomplishments.

5. Schools as Organizations: Chapter 6

5.1. District Stakeholder

5.1.1. District 5 Senators: Doug Jones and Richard Shelby House of Rep: Mo Brooks

5.1.2. District 3 Local Senator: Arthur Orr District 9 Local House of Rep: Ed Henry

5.1.3. State Super: Michael Sentance Hartselle Super: Dr Dee Dee Jones

5.1.4. District 6 Rep on State School Board: Cynthia McCarty

5.1.5. Hartselle City Schools Board Members: Dr. James Joy, Venita Jones, Daxton Maze, Amy Pace, Randy Sparkman

5.2. 4 Elements of Change within a school's culture and processes: School processes are elusive and difficult to define but are powerful. Changing a schools' culture requires, effort, time, intelligence, and good will to make it more learner centered.

5.2.1. 1. New behaviors have to be learned by the whole staff of a school for reconstruction.

5.2.2. 2. Team building must extend to the entire school and communication and trust is a must.

5.2.3. 3. Process and content are interrelated to educational change.

5.2.4. 4. Conflict will happen and is necessary for change to occur.

6. Curriculum and Pedagogy: Chapter 7

6.1. Developmentalist Curriculum Theory: is related to life experiences and what the students are interested in and what makes them learn best. It is based on Dewey and Piaget and their responses to the needs of children and curriculum through how it is presented as content from the teacher. It is student centered and adapted to individual needs.

6.2. 2 dominant traditions of teaching: 1) Mimetic Tradition (didactic method)-lecture style teaching to deliver content knowledge as means of communication 2) Transformative Tradition-this form of teaching is multidimensional. The purpose of this style is to change the student through critical thinking skills, independence, in a meaningful way.

7. Equality of Opportunity: Chapter 8

7.1. CLASS, RACE & GENDER-social class plays an important part on a students educational experience. Race has a direct impact on the education of students and their achievement. Gender can be directly related to the education a student receives in our society.

7.2. 2 responses to Coleman's 1982 study: 1) private schools seem to do better for low income students 2) the location that a student goes to school is closely related to the race and socioeconomic background. Race and socioeconomic background has a greater effect on the educational achievement of a student.

8. Education Inequality: Chapter 9

8.1. 2 Types of Cultural Differences Theory: 1) African-American students do not do as well in school because of how they adapt from their environment at home and within groups 2) Working class and nonwhite students resist the main culture of the school which they attend because of they resist the middle-class, white culture of a school.

8.2. 4 School-related Explanations of Educational Inequality: 1) School Financing-funding is so different in thriving, affluent school districts than they are in poor inner city schools. 2) Effective School Research-there are school centered processes that help to explain unequal educational achievement by different groups of students. 3) Between-School Differences in Curriculum and Pedagogic Practices-school climates affect academic achievement. Schools in working class areas are more likely to have teacher-directed pedagogic practices and efficient curriculum. 4) With-in School Differences in Curriculum and Ability Grouping-different groups of students within schools perform differently than others from within the same school.

9. Educational Reform: Chapter 10

9.1. 2 School Based Reforms: 1) School Based-Charter Schools are free to all students in a school district, paid for with public tax dollars public that are free from regulations that most public schools have to abide and are held accountable for student performance. 2) Privatization-usually took over through for-profit companies for investment purposes and to help failing schools and districts with low student achievement.

9.2. 2 Reforms: 1) Economic Reform-School Finance: to help improve schools for low-income and minority children, especially in Urban areas. early childhood programs, summer programs, to help with the achievement gap. 2) Community Reform- Full Service and Community Schools: educate not just the child but also the community and families of students. Full Cervices Schools serve as community centers, to help prevent problems within at risk neighborhoods and support them to improve public education.