Foundations of Education

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Foundations of Education by Mind Map: Foundations of Education

1. Schools as Organizations

1.1. Alabama's senators are Richard Shelby and Doug Jones. Alabama state superintendent is Michael Sentance. Angie Bates, Mary Louise Stowe, and Dave Weis are members of the Madison County Board of Education. Terri Collins, Ed Henry, and Mike Ball are the House of Representative members.

1.2. The elements of change are quite difficult to cause because schools are so political. Groups and specific people have their own assigned interests. School board members have problems with the teachers concerning pay, productivity, and professional standards. The best way to work through these problems is with negotiation. Changing culture in schools requires you to be patient, have skills, and good will.

2. History of U.S. Education

2.1. 1.Choose and describe a reform movement that you think has had the most influence on education.

2.1.1. In 1833, Oberlin College Institute welcomed women as well as African Americans to attend their school. Several other colleges started to open their doors to them as well.

2.2. 2. Choose and describe one historical interpretation of U.S. Education.

2.2.1. The Massachusetts School Law of 1647 issued every town that had "50 household" would make one person teach all the children, regardless the gender, to read and write. The town would be required to pay the teacher. Towns with "100 families or household" were required to set up a grammar school to prepare the children for universities. Towns that did not obey were fined.

3. Philosophy of Education

3.1. Project Start

3.1.1. Project specifications

3.1.2. End User requirements

3.1.3. Action points sign-off

3.2. Phase 1

3.2.1. Top Priorities

3.2.2. Medium Priorities

3.2.3. Low Priorities

3.3. Phase 2

3.3.1. Top Priorities

3.3.2. Medium Priorities

3.3.3. Low Priorities

3.4. Phase 3

3.4.1. Top Priorities

3.4.2. Medium Priorities

3.4.3. Low Priorities

4. Sociology of Education

4.1. Define each of the theoretical perspectives concerning the relationship between school and society: functionalism, conflict theory, and internationalism

4.1.1. Functionalists think that conflict represents a breakdown of shared values. In a well functioning society, schools socialize the children into appropriate values, and classify them by their abilities. To functionalists, educational reform is meant to create structures and subjects that are more technically advanced and promote social unity.

4.1.2. To conflict theorists the join of society is economic, cultural. political, and military power. They don't see the relation between school and society as complicated or uncomplicated. They often emphasize struggle.

4.1.3. Internationalist theories help to understand education in the "big picture". They want to make the common, normal things for students and teachers strange.

4.2. Identify and describe 5 effects of schooling on individuals that you think have the greatest impact on students as explained in the book

4.2.1. (Education and Mobility)- Most Americans think that more education helps lead to economic and social mobility. (Knowledge and Attitudes)- In this effect of schooling, it is found that the higher the social class background of the student, the higher their performance level will be. When it comes to differences in terms of academic programs and policies they do make differences in the student's learning. (Inside the Schools)- Schools structures have a lot of impact on student's learning and their outcomes. (Teacher Behavior)- Teachers are the ones who spend the majority of time with their students and have many roles to play. (Education and Inequality)- Their are 5 classes in the United States. The spread of income,power, and property are not evenly distributed. People are stratified by race, ethnicity, age, and gender.

5. Politics of Education

5.1. 1. Identify and describe the four purposes of education

5.1.1. Intellectual, political, social, and economic. Intellectual purpose is to teach basic skills like reading, writing, and mathematics and help students gain better thinking skills. Political purpose is to teach patriotism, help prepare the students who may partake in this political order. Social purpose is to help fix social problems and teach students to work socially. Economic purpose is to prepare students for their future careers and help figure out what they are best at in order to know what career roles to follow.

5.2. Choose and describe a perspective for each of the following: 1) the role of the school; 2) explanations of unequal performance; and 3) definition of educational problems.

5.2.1. 1) To watch and take care of students and to help students learn and grow. 2) Students are diverse and all learn differently, this is why it's important to teach in different ways and be creative to make all students engaged. 3) Not meeting the needs of every student. Diversity needs to be a more important matter.

6. Curriculum and Pedagogy

6.1. I support the developmentalist curriculum. This particular curriculum supports the interests and needs of the students more than what the society needs. Developmentalist curriculum is student centered and focuses on meeting the needs of every student.

6.2. The two dominant traditions of teaching are mimetic and transformative. Mimetic believes the purpose of education is transfer specific knowledge to students whereas, transformative believes education is supposed to change the student in a meaningful way whether it be spiritually, emotionally, intellectually, or creatively.

7. Equality of Opportunity

7.1. Class, race, and gender all impact student's educational outcomes. Depending on the class you're in, depends on what kind of educational outcome you will have. The longer a student remains in school, the longer they will need financial help from their parents. This wouldn't be a major issue for upper class families who are wealthy; whereas, a student from a lower class might struggle to succeed in school, because their parents aren't wealthy. A person's race has a major impact on their educational outcome as well According to book, 5.2 percent of white students are likely to dropout of high school, 7.4 percent of black students are likely to dropout of high school, and 17.6 of Hispanic students are likely to drop out. Gender has a played a major role in how successful that person would be. In the past, women were less likely to attain the same level of education. Nowadays, women are less likely to drop out of high school than men, and score higher in reading. In the past 30 years, gender differences have been reduced involving educational attainment,

7.2. The first response was what Coleman thought was significant, others saw as nearly insignificant. Jencks used Coleman's findings to figure out the estimated yearly average achievement gain by public and Catholic schools. He estimated that the yearly increment available to Catholic schooling was very small. The differences that exist between Catholic and public schools are statistically important. , but when it comes to differences in learning, the results are minor. The second response was where an individual goes to school is related to race and socioeconomic status but the racial and socioeconomic composition of a school has a greater effect.

8. Philosophy of Education

8.1. Describe the particular world view of one of student-centered philosophy of education (pragmatism or existentialism). Include the following information: generic notions, key researchers, goal of education, role of teacher, method of instruction, and curriculum.

8.1.1. Pragmatism- The key researchers would be William James, John Dewey, and George Sanders Peirce and earlier philosophers such as John Locke, Frances Bacon, and Jean-Jacques Rousseau. Peirce and James described pragmatism through the biblical phrase, "By their fruits we shall know them." Pragmatism motivates people to find tasks that work in order to reach their desired ends. Dewey's ideas about education suggested that educators start with the needs and interests of the child in the classroom, let the child figure out what it is they want to study, start group learning, and depend greatly on experiential learning. Dewey thought the goal of education was to stress the importance of school being a place where ideas could be challenged, applied, and revamped and school needed to be a place of preparation for life in a democratic society. The role of the teacher is to encourage, offer suggestions and questions, help plan and guide students to their course of study, and writes curriculum. Method of instruction- Dewey thought children needed to learn individually as well as in groups and students needed to let the teacher know what it was they wanted to learn and know. Curriculum- Dewey ideas led to discipline-centered curriculum. Students would learn math, science, history, reading, writing, art, music, metal working, cooking, sewing, and so on.

9. Explanations of Educational Equality

9.1. Two types of cultural differences. The first I picked would be John Ogbu's theory. He says black children don't do as well school because they adapt to their oppressed position in the class and caste structure. The second one would be Bowles and Gintis's theory who say that working-class adapt to the unequal aspects of the class structure.

9.2. Four school-centered explanations: School financing, public schools are financed through a combination of revenues from local, state, and federal sources, Although, funds mainly come from state and local taxes, with local property taxes a significant source. Some communities have much higher property taxes, these places can raise more money for their schools. Effective school research, if students from the same racial and socioeconomic backgrounds attending different schools within the same community perform at completely different rates, then something within the actual school is the problem. Curriculum and ability grouping, at the elementary level, students are divided and grouped up into reading groups and seperate classes based on teacher recommendations, test scores, and sometimes because of class, race, and gender. Gender and schooling, a significant aspect of this literature concerns gender differences in how men and women see the world, their cultural causes,and the role of schools in sustaining or eliminating them.

10. Educational Reform

10.1. Charter schools: Charter schools are public schools that are free from several regulations applied to traditional public schools and are held accountable for the student's performance. Vouchers: Vouchers argue that school choice will have three important educational impacts. The first being it will provide low-income parents with the same choices as middle-class parents and will have more parental satisfaction. Second, charter and voucher schools will provide better learning environments for low-income students. Third, because of the better performance of charter and voucher schools, urban public schools will be forced to step up their game.

10.2. State Intervention and Mayoral Control in Local School Districts- All state accountability systems focus on rewards and sanctions. State policy makers are mainly focusing their attention on how to reward schools and districts that perform well and how to sanction those that don't. Some systems include school or district takeover as ultimate accountability measures. Since 2000, 23 states have enacted statues verifying their state education agencies to take control of school districts from local authorities.