Foundations of Education

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Foundations of Education by Mind Map: Foundations of Education

1. Chapter 2

1.1. Perspectives of Education

1.1.1. Radical

1.1.1.1. Role of School

1.1.1.1.1. To reduce inequality of educational results and provide upward social mobility.

1.1.1.2. Explanations of Unequal Performance

1.1.1.2.1. Students who come from lower socio-economic backgrounds are believed to begin school with unequal opportunities. Educational failure is often times blamed on the economy, not the education system.

1.1.1.3. Definition of Educational Problems

1.1.1.3.1. 1.They believe we have failed the poor, minorities, and women through classists, racists, sexists and homophobic policies.

1.1.1.3.2. 2.The schools have stifled critical understanding of the problems of American Society through a curriculum and teaching practices that promote conformity.

1.1.1.3.3. 3. It is believed that the traditional curriculum is classist, racist, sexist, and homophobic, and leaves out cultures, histories, and voices of the oppressed.

1.1.1.3.4. 4. In general, the educational system promotes inequality of both opportunity and results.

1.2. Four Purposes of Education

1.2.1. Intellectual

1.2.1.1. Teach basic cognitive skills such as reading, writing and mathematics; and transmit specific knowledge and help students acquire a higher order thinking skills such as analysis, evaluation, and synthesis.

1.2.2. Political

1.2.2.1. To inculcate allegiance to existing political order (patriotism); to prepare citizens who will participate in this political order; to help assimilate diverse culture groups into a common political order, and to teach children the basic laws of society.

1.2.3. Social

1.2.3.1. To help solve social problems; to work as one of many institutions, such as family and church to ensure social cohesion; and to socialize children into the various roles, behaviors, and values of society.

1.2.4. Economic

1.2.4.1. To prepare students for the later occupational roles and select, train, and allocate individuals into the division of labor.

2. Chapter 3 History

2.1. Reform Movement

2.1.1. Education for All: The Emergence of Public High School

2.1.1.1. Allowed more people to go to school for less money

2.1.1.2. Prepared students for the "duties of life"

2.1.1.3. School districts have an impact on taxes to help levy taxes for some institutions.

2.1.1.4. Five model curricula, English, Math, Science, History, and a Liberal Arts.

2.2. Historical interpretation of U.S. education

2.2.1. Radical

2.2.1.1. Wanted equal opportunity for the poor, and minority students

2.2.1.2. Felt as if poor and minority students were getting the short end of the stick.

2.2.1.3. Believed that the expansion of school was/is done for social control rather than the interests of equity.

2.2.1.4. Believe your placement in the educational system boils down to your social class and race.

3. Chapter 4

3.1. Sociological Perspectives

3.1.1. 5 Effects of Schooling

3.1.1.1. Knowledge and Attitudes

3.1.1.1.1. Although sociologists do not think that it is important for the youth to pick up certain attitudes in school,it is however a key component in a students everyday life. When teachers use effective learning techniques, it helps students learn not only academics, but it helps them in everyday lives.

3.1.1.2. Employment

3.1.1.2.1. While having a college degree would be beneficial to getting a job, it does not correlate to job performance. Jobs such as bank tellers, engineers, military personnel have found that degrees very rarely impact how an employee will work. Although, academic prestige will help with a higher paying job. Overall, there is a wide range of variation with the pay for both a student with only a high school diploma, and a college degree, meaning there is hardly a difference of income.

3.1.1.3. Teacher Behavior

3.1.1.3.1. It can be assumed that teachers themselves have a huge impact on a students education. They play many roles, some as discipline, educator, mentor, a leader. They themselves are models for students. They set standards for students, not only for instructional purposes, but for social and behavioral purposes as well.

3.1.1.4. Student and Peer Groups and Alienation

3.1.1.4.1. A students peer group has a huge impact on how he/she learns and develops in a classroom. With many labels that are floating around in a typical high school, students are often pressured into a mold that either does not care for school, or one who cares too much. Students are often alienated from certain groups, which can lead them to become violent, or self injurious.

3.1.1.5. Education and Mobility

3.1.1.5.1. The debate about public schooling has been a long pressing issue that has made many people question whether or not it is academically challenging enough for our students. Overall it is a great system, because it offers affordable education, for many lower-middle class families. Not so much now in the 21st century, but race and gender played a huge role on how a student was taught.

4. Chapter 5

4.1. Philosophy of Education

4.1.1. Generic Notions

4.1.1.1. Many of these notions come from Aristotles belief of studying the material world, as much as possible would help clarify ideas. A big part of his ideology is realism. Meaning to study the nature of reality. As stated before many of these notions come from many different Greek philosophers.

4.1.2. Key Researchers

4.1.2.1. Plato and Aristotle were huge members of this kind of research. They were mainly involved in Realisim and Ideaism. Aristotle's Systematic Theory of Logic. This System of logic involved three things. A Major Premise. A Minor Premise. And a Conclusion.

4.1.3. Goals of Education

4.1.3.1. For realists a big part of their theory is to apply a lot of principles of science. Plato and Aristotle both had many ideas but they differed of study methods. Aristotle believed that it was possible to understand ideas through studying the world of matter.

4.1.4. Role of Teacher

4.1.4.1. Teachers should have a clear understanding in the core classes, consisting of math, science, or humanities. Teachers must be clear and consistent with their philosophies.

4.1.5. Method of Instruction

4.1.5.1. Although realists support a wide majority of methods of instruction, they are very fond of lecture, question, and answer. They also believe in assessment in order to see what all the students learn.

4.1.6. Curriculum

4.1.6.1. Science, Math, Reading, Writing, and humanities. They strive to be the master of knowledge in order to be a part of society.

5. Chapter 6

5.1. Schools as Organizations

5.1.1. Federal Senators and House of Representatives

5.1.1.1. Senators

5.1.1.1.1. Doug Jones (D)

5.1.1.1.2. Richard Shelby (R)

5.1.1.2. House of Representatives

5.1.1.2.1. Teri Sewell (D)

5.1.1.2.2. Mo Brooks(R)

5.1.1.2.3. Martha Robby (R)

5.1.1.2.4. Bradley Byrne (R)

5.1.1.2.5. Gary Palmer (R)

5.1.1.2.6. Robert Anderholt (R)

5.1.1.2.7. Micheal D.Rodgers (R)

5.1.2. State Superintendent

5.1.2.1. Dr. Thomas B. Rice

5.1.3. State School Board Member

5.1.3.1. Jackie Ziegler (R)

5.1.4. Local Superintendent

5.1.4.1. Shane Barnett

5.1.5. School Board Members

5.1.5.1. Chris Carter

5.1.5.2. Heath Albright

5.1.5.3. Kenny Brockman

5.1.5.4. Mike Graves

5.1.5.5. Wayne Myrex

5.1.5.6. Jason Speegle

5.1.5.7. Gene Sullins

6. Chapter 7

6.1. Curriculum and Pedagogy

6.1.1. Developmentalist

6.1.1.1. Relating schooling to life experiences of each child in a way that would make education come alive in a meaningful manner.

6.1.1.2. Relates to the needs and interests of the student rather than the needs of society.

7. Chapter 8

7.1. Equality of Opportunity and Educational Outcomes

7.1.1. Social Class

7.1.1.1. Expectations are set lower, due to the cost of school. From a cultural point of view, school seems to only represent the values of the middle and upper class.

7.1.2. Race

7.1.2.1. Higher drop-out rate in African Americans, Hispanic-American. This is due to the inferior educational opportunities than white students.

7.1.3. Gender

7.1.3.1. The classroom has been more feminized to help reach out t the females, due to their hardships in history. Males generally do better at math than females, but females generally do better than males at reading and writing.

7.2. Coleman Study

7.2.1. Differences among schools make a difference

7.2.2. The differences between public and private schools that do exist concerning learning are negligible.

8. Chapter 9

8.1. Explanations of Educational Inequality

8.1.1. Cultural Differences

8.1.1.1. Macrosociological Perspective

8.1.1.1.1. Working class students adapt to unequal aspects of class structure, and have their own language and communication that puts them at a disadvantage compared to middle class and upper class students,

8.1.1.2. Cultural Deprivation

8.1.1.2.1. Often times deny cultural problems and dysfunction. Although they are often ethnocentric and biased and think the culture of schooling often alienates students from working class and nonwhite families. Think that cultural patterns negatively affect school performance.

8.1.2. School Centered explanations of cultural inequality

8.1.2.1. School Financing

8.1.2.1.1. Depending on the area that the school is at, will determine how well the school is equipped with the supplies that the students need for they success. Higher taxes are placed on those areas with higher income, therefore more money goes to the schools, while many poverty srticken areas cannot afford such high taxes, therefore their schools are not receiving as much money.

8.1.2.2. Effective School Research

8.1.2.2.1. Research should be ran on schools in lower economic communities, and data should be taken and studied on how well those students do. Schools should then take that data and study it and make adjustments according to the students needs.

8.1.2.3. Curriculum and Ability grouping

8.1.2.3.1. School characteristics may affect how a student does in school. If a school is imposing a higher curriculum at a rate that a student cannot keep up, or is struggling to understand, then it would make it extremely difficult for a student to do well in those subjects.

8.1.2.4. Gender and Schooling

8.1.2.4.1. Men and women are portrayed in stereotypical ways, often times limiting what they learn, and what materials are available.

9. Chapter 10

9.1. Educational Reform and Improvement

9.1.1. Political Reforms

9.1.1.1. No Child Left Behind

9.1.1.1.1. Annual testing for students in grades 3-8 in reading and math. At least one test for those in grades 10-12

9.1.1.1.2. School by school data on test performance. States must also meet a certain score in order to receive an appropriate rating.

9.1.1.2. Race to the Top

9.1.1.2.1. Adopts standards and assessments that prepare students for college

9.1.1.2.2. Building data systems that measure a students growth

9.1.1.2.3. Recruits, and rewards effective teachers

9.1.2. School Based reforms

9.1.2.1. School To Business

9.1.2.1.1. Although they gave gained a lot of attention, there is no data supporting that they gave significantly impacted schools. These business tend to help out these schools with their on best interests in mind.

9.1.2.2. School to Work

9.1.2.2.1. While these corporations meant well for the students, they have not necessarily stayed to their word. Schools are still underfunded, and in need of other supplies. The main idea behind this reform was to help students explore potential jobs for outside of high school or college.