Foundations of Education

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Foundations of Education by Mind Map: Foundations of Education

1. Politics of Education Chapter 2

1.1. Four Purposes of Education

1.1.1. 1. Achievement Gaps

1.1.1.1. Social class, race, ethnicity, gender

1.1.1.2. Access to college, dropout rates

1.1.2. 2. Crisis in Urban Education

1.1.2.1. Safe environment, progress monitoring

1.1.2.2. Clear school mission

1.1.3. 3. Decline in Literacy

1.1.3.1. Not just reading, but also math and writing skills

1.1.4. 4. Assessment Issues

1.1.4.1. Constant testing

1.1.4.2. The Who is tested? Who is accountable for the test scores?

1.2. Role of the School

1.2.1. Providing education to all students

1.3. Explanations of Unequal Performance

1.3.1. Students who put in more effort and hardwork

1.4. Definition of Educational Problems

1.4.1. Discipline, basic curriculum

2. History of Education Chapter 3

2.1. Education for all

2.1.1. One of the greatest changes that has affected high school

2.2. Colonial Era

2.2.1. Old Deluder Laws

2.2.1.1. Only nominally successful

2.2.1.1.1. Nine institutions of higher learning prior to the American Revolution

3. Sociological Perspectives Chapter 4

3.1. Three major theories between school and society.

3.1.1. 1. Functional

3.1.1.1. They view society as a kind of machine

3.1.2. 2. Conflict

3.1.2.1. Karl Max, the intellectual founder of the conflict school in the sociology of education

3.1.3. 3. Interactional

3.1.3.1. Critique arises from the observation

3.1.3.2. Make the commonplace strange

3.2. Five effects of schooling on individuals that have the greatest impact on students

3.2.1. 1. Employment- graduating from college will lead to greater employment opportunities

3.2.2. 2. Inside the school- not all students study the same curriculum

3.2.3. 3. Teacher behavior- teachers have a huge impact on student learning and behavior

3.2.4. 4. Education and Inequality- income, power, and property are unevenly distributed in society

3.2.5. 5. Gender- men are frequently paid more than women for the same work, and women, in general, have fewer occupational opportunities than men

4. Philosophy of Education Chapter 5

4.1. World view of one of student-centered philosophy of education

4.1.1. Realism

4.1.1.1. Generic notions: through studying the material world was it possible for an individual to clarify or develop ideas

4.1.1.2. Key researchers: Aristotle, Plato, Francis Bacon, John Locke, Alfred North Whitehead and Bertrand Russell

4.1.1.3. Goal of Education: important questions concerning such notions as the good life, truth, beauty and so on could be answered through the study of ideas

4.1.1.4. Role of teacher: steeped in the basic academic disciplines in order to transmit to their students the knowledge necessary for the continuance of the human race

4.1.1.5. Method of instruction: realists would support a number of methods- lecture, and question and answer

4.1.1.6. Curriculum: basics-science and math, reading and writing, and the humanities

5. Schools as Organizations Chapter 6

5.1. Federal Level

5.1.1. District State Board Rep: Russell Johnson

5.1.2. House of Representative: Mo Brooks

5.1.3. Senators: Doug Jones and Richard Shelby

5.2. Local Level

5.2.1. State Superintendent: Michael Sentance

5.2.2. Local Superintendent: Trey Holladay

5.3. 4 Elements of change within a schools culture and processes

5.3.1. School is an unity of interacting personalities

5.3.2. School cultures are extremely vulnerable to disruption and that continuity is often maintained by the use of authority

5.3.3. Changing the cultures of schools requires patience, skill, and good will

5.3.4. The culture of a school is the product of the political compromises that have been created in order for the school to be viable

6. Curriculum and Pedagogy Chapter 7

6.1. Developmentalist curriculum theory

6.1.1. Needs and interests of the student rather than the needs of society

6.2. 2 Dominant traditions of teaching

6.2.1. Mimetic: the viewpoint that the purpose of education is to transmit specific knowledge to students

6.2.2. Transformative: defines the function of education more broadly and more ambiguously

7. Equality of Opportunity Chapter 8

7.1. Impact of educational outcomes due to class, race, and gender

7.1.1. In the last 30 years, the upper and upper middle class in the US have become increasingly wealthy while the other classes have experienced a relative decline

7.1.2. Middle and upper middle-class children are more likely to speak "standard English"

7.1.3. Children from working-class and underclass families are more likely to underachieve, and drop out

7.1.4. 5.2 percent of white students drop out of school, 9.3 percent of African-American students and 17.6 percent of Hispanic-American students are likely to drop out of school

7.1.5. Liberals argue that these increases demonstrate the success of educational reforms aimed at improving achievement; conservatives argue that the decline in male achievement and attainment is a result of the "feminizing" of the classroom

7.2. Coleman Study of 1982

7.2.1. Response #1: When they compared the average test scores of public school and private school sophomores, there was not one subject in which public school students scored higher than private school students

7.2.2. Response #2: Do school differences make a difference in terms of student outcomes? At this point, probably the best answer to this question is a highly qualified and realistic yes.

8. Educational Inequality Chapter 9

8.1. 2 Types of Cultural differences theory

8.1.1. African-American children do less well in school because they adapt to their oppressed position in the class and caste structure

8.1.2. Working-class and nonwhite students as resisting the dominant culture of the schools

8.2. 4 School Centered Explanations

8.2.1. 1. School financing: Public schools are financed through a combination of revenues from local, state, and federal sources. Families in more affluent communities have higher incomes, they pay proportionately less of their incomes for their higher school taxes

8.2.2. 2. School Research: strong and effective leadership by a principal or school head, accountability processes for students and teachers, monitoring of student learning. The effective school research suggests that there are school-centered processes that help to explain unequal educational achievement by different groups of students

8.2.3. 3. Gender and Schooling: Feminists agree that schooling often limits the educational opportunities and life chances of women in a number of ways, boys and girls are socialized differently through a variety of school processes

8.2.4. 4. Reproducing Inequality: School-centered theories stress the importance of schooling in reproducing inequality, societal forces unequally affect families and schools

9. Educational Reform Chapter 10

9.1. 2 School-based reforms

9.1.1. Teacher Education: Lack of rigor in teacher prep program, lack of intellectual requirement in teacher prep program, their judging on the test scores

9.1.2. Teacher Quality: All teachers must be highly qualified, teachers often teach out of field