Foundations of Education

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Foundations of Education by Mind Map: Foundations of Education

1. Politics of Education

1.1. Purpose

1.1.1. intellectual The intellectual purpose of education is to teach the basics like reading, writing, and mathematics. This purpose also represents the more specifics like history, science, and literature.

1.1.2. political The political purpose of education is to teach patriotism of our country, to prepare those who may participate in politics, and to teach students of the fundamental laws of society.

1.1.3. social The social purpose of education is to teach social skills and solve social issues.

1.1.4. economic The economic purpose of education is to help prepare students for their future occupational roles in life.

1.2. Perspective

1.2.1. The liberal perspective for the role of the school is to stabilize the needs of society and the people. They see a nation where the people can make decisions, achievement depicts adult status, and all citizens receive equivalent chances.

1.2.2. The liberal perspective for the explanations of unequal educational performance is that some individuals have more advantages than others because of their life opportunities. They believe the system should equalize the roles so that the disadvantaged has the opportunity to make something of themselves.

1.2.3. The liberal perspective of educational problems are that the schools show favoritism to the privileged and pay less attention to the poor and minority children, they focus on disciplining the children too much, they believe the difference in urban and suburban schools reflects on how the students learn, and they believe the curriculum needs to be updated.

2. History of U.S. Education

2.1. Reform Movement

2.1.1. The reform movement that I think has had the most influence on education was the education for women and African-Americans. If this movement wouldn't have happened, women and African-Americans wouldn't have had educational opportunities. Even though this reform helped woman and African-Americans earn education, there were still many issues to come in the 19th and 20th centuries.

2.2. Historical Interpretation

2.2.1. The Radical-Revisionist school believed that education in the US was the best with successful results for many different reasons. They believe that for economic efficiency and productivity, the school system has grown.

3. Curriculum and Pediology

3.1. Developmentalist Curriculum

3.1.1. This curriculum focuses on keeping the students first and tries to involve their needs and interest with the curriculum. This will keep the students intrigued with the learning criteria.

3.2. Two Dominate Traditions of Teaching

3.2.1. The Mimetic Tradition This tradition is a form of passed down knowledge. It is information that has not been discovered by the student but presented to the student. An example would be how someone learns something from reading a book.

3.2.2. The Transformative Tradition This tradition consists of trying to transform a student. After being taught, the students personality goes through a dramatic change. An example would be how a person commits their life to Christianity.

4. Philosophy of Education

4.1. Generic Notions

4.1.1. Dewey's Pragmatism was based off of a new psychology. His philosophy was based off of the theory of evolution. He believed in an improved society through education and created an atmosphere where students could learn from books and experientially.

4.2. Key Researchers

4.2.1. Key researchers included people like George Sanders Peirce, William James, and John Dewey.

4.3. Goal of Education

4.3.1. The goals of education was to have ideas and to test them out to see how accurate it is. Dewey believed that the school should prepare students for a democratic society.

4.4. Role of Teacher

4.4.1. The role of the teacher in Pragmatism is to stand on standby and guides students with encouragement, answers to questions, etc. The teacher provides the curriculum and has forms of disciplines up their sleeve to be able to give out the curriculum properly.

4.5. Curriculum

4.5.1. The curriculum of Pragmatism is based off of Dewey's notion of a core curriculum. There is no fixed curriculum, and it evolves around the student's needs and interests.

4.6. Method of Instruction

4.6.1. Pragmatism has roles of individually learning and group learning. Dewey believed that both were very effective. He also believed that the students should ask questions about certain things they want to know in particular. The books that was used in Dewey's school were written by the students and teachers together. The children were given a lot of opportunity to do what they wanted; for example, converse to each other, walk around, stretch.

5. Schools as Organizations

5.1. Governance

5.1.1. State Senators Doug Jones Richard Shelby

5.1.2. House of Representatives Randall Shedd Corey Harbison

5.1.3. State Superintendent Michael Sentance

5.1.4. Local Superintendent Shane Barnette

5.1.5. Local School Board Heath Allbright Kenny Brockman Chris Carter Mike Graves Wayne Myrex Jason Speegle Gene Sullins

5.1.6. District Senater Paul Bussman

5.2. Elements of Change (France)

5.2.1. School Processes In France, there are two different types of schools; one for the elite and one for ordinary people. For the very intellectual, there is a system that consists of elementary, secondary, and postsecondary schools.

5.2.2. School Culture The French government have come up with a series of questions to ask students so that they can decipher the very intellectual students with the less academically talented students.

6. Sociology of Education

6.1. Relationship between school and society

6.1.1. Functionalism - Functionalists believe that society woks like a machine. They believe that one section works with another to make vital energy work.

6.1.2. Conflict Theory The conflict theory consists of how some sociologists of education argue on how the social order is based on the capability of dominate groups to force their will on lower groups through force, cooptation, and manipulation rather than just having a civilized agreement. This schooling system is viewed as a social battlefield.

6.1.3. Interactionalism In dealing with school and society, interactional theories are fundamentally evaluations of the practical and conflict outlooks. This study helps in the evaluation of the big picture but not every day life in the schools.

6.2. Five effects of schooling on individuals

6.2.1. Knowledge and Attitudes Some sociologists disagree that the school system is important to the knowledge and attitudes students gain in school. What is certain is that school does have some impact on students lives. It has been studied that the more education students receive, the more knowledge and social participation they will have.

6.2.2. Employment With more education comes more employment opportunities. Most corporations and other large organizations demand high levels of education.

6.2.3. Teacher Behavior A teachers impact on a student could change their lives forever. With all the different roles teachers play, it is important that they are always thinking of the students future. A teacher becomes a role model when they make the leap to stand in front of students and guide them. The teachers attitude towards their students greatly effects how well the students learn in their classroom.

6.2.4. Education and Inequality The people of the United States are ranked by classes. The way the classes are ranked is a grand example of inequality. It has been studied that schools could potentially create an open society.

6.2.5. Tracking Tracking consists of monitoring students and placing them in certain programs based off of their abilities and inclinations. Studies have shown that students are also placed in certain programs based on their race and class rank. Students track placement effects the way they learn and develop.

7. Equality of Opportunity

7.1. Impact of Class, Race, and Gender

7.1.1. The impact of social classes and education can be major. People of the higher class have the money to send their students to a high end school, while people of the lower class send their students to the regular public schools. The quality of their learning experiences are dramatically different.

7.1.2. Race is an important factor when it comes to the statistics of what people are able to achieve. For example, 5.2% of white people drop out of school, while 9.3% of African Americans and 17.6% of Hispanics drop out.

7.1.3. In todays time, woman are less likely to drop out compared to men. Woman also have higher levels of reading and writing proficiency than men. Men are better at mathematic proficiency than women

7.2. Responses to the Coleman Study

7.2.1. The first response was that the things Coleman finds significant, others find insignificant. A study was done to show that there are significant differences between public and Catholic schools, but their differences in learning are minor and insignificant.

7.2.2. In the second response, it was argued that where a student goes to school is based off of their race and socioeconomic background which plays a part in their achievements.

8. Educational Reform

8.1. School Based Reforms

8.1.1. School-Business partnerships consists of businesses coming together to creat programs for schools to help them gain knowledge about things like management. Having programs like that raises test scores and grades. Another example of school-business relationships are businesses offering scholarships.

8.1.2. School-to-work systems offered schools the opportunity to get their students work ready. This system prepared students for the high-wage, high-skill jobs of todays society. These systems offered school-based learning, work-based learning, and connecting activities.

8.2. Societal, Community, Economic, or Political Reforms

8.2.1. Full service and community schools focus on educating the whole community. They focus on meeting the students' parents and discussing/focusing on all of their needs. They also create a collaborative agreement between the community and school to assist their needs.

8.2.2. Harlem Children's Zone provides early childhood education for children before they begin kindergarten. This was made to target African American kids to help them get a jumpstart on their education that they may not be getting. Statistics had shown that white parents are more likely to read to their children and encourage them to read, while African American children were more likely to watch tv for long periods of time. This program was made to change that.

9. Educational Inequality

9.1. Sociological Explanations of Unequal Achievement

9.1.1. One example of the cultural difference theory is how african-american children do not do as well in school because adjust to their oppressed situation in the class. It is said that African-Americans encourage their children to adjust to their life changes rather than attribute their skills.

9.1.2. Another form of the cultural difference theory is that African-Americans need to deny their own cultural identities and starting thinking of themselves more like the dominate culture, which is white and middle class.

9.2. School Centered Explanation

9.2.1. School financing has always been extremely different from school to school. Because school funding is based off of local taxes, affluent communities are able to have more sufficient funding, while the poorer districts don't get a lot of money.

9.2.2. Effective school research consists of school differences and student differences. If the schools' effects are to blame for not being significant, there is nothing the teachers or schools can do to make positive effects take place.

9.2.3. The differences involving curriculum and ability grouping is that students are separated into groups/classes based on teacher recommendations, test scores, and maybe even race and gender. These classes will sometimes use the same curriculum but be taught in a different way or at a slower pace.

9.2.4. It has been said that men and women are treated differently in this word from the very beginning of time. The feminist movements starting in 1950s began protesting the way women are treated. Feminists argue that schools limits educational opportunities for females in a lot of different ways.