Foundations of Education

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Foundations of Education by Mind Map: Foundations of Education

1. Politics of Education CH. 2

1.1. Four purposes of education: intellectual, political, social, and economic.

1.1.1. Intellectual

1.1.1.1. to teach basic cognitive skills such as reading, writing, and math

1.1.1.2. help students gain higher-order thinking skills

1.1.2. Political

1.1.2.1. prepare students into citizens who participate in political order

1.1.2.2. gather diverse cultural groups into common political order

1.1.2.3. teach allegiance to the political order

1.1.2.4. teach the basic laws of society

1.1.3. Social

1.1.3.1. help solve social problems

1.1.3.2. socialize children into many different behaviors, roles, and values of society

1.1.3.3. work as one of many institutions to ensure social cohesion

1.1.4. Economic

1.1.4.1. prepare students for their future occupations

1.1.4.2. select, train, and allocate individuals into the division of labor

2. History of U.S. Education Ch. 3

2.1. Brown vs. Board of Education

2.1.1. the reform that truly gave education for all

2.1.2. the "separate but equal" schools that were before this were no where near equal, and African-Americans did not receive the same opportunity for education

2.1.3. took years to accomplish, but is now what I believe the most important reform that took place about school

2.2. Conservative perspectives

2.2.1. adjusting curriculum to try and meet all the students needs has disrupted the function of schools

2.2.2. the U.S. students were thought to know very little and schools were considered mediocre

2.2.3. schools were losing academic standards

2.2.4. they were valuing skills over content

2.2.5. believe that schools have not improved us or moved us towards a fair society

3. Schools as Organizations Ch. 6

3.1. Major Steakholders

3.2. Federal Level

3.2.1. Senators

3.2.1.1. Richard Shelby

3.2.1.2. Doug Jones

3.2.2. Representative

3.2.2.1. Robert Aderholt

3.3. Local Level, Marshall County, AL

3.3.1. Senator

3.3.1.1. Clay Scofield

3.3.2. Representative

3.3.2.1. Ed Henry

3.3.3. State Superintendent

3.3.3.1. Ed Richardson

3.3.4. Representative on State School Board

3.3.4.1. Ed Henry

3.3.5. Local Superintendent

3.3.5.1. Cindy Wigley

3.3.6. Local School Board Members

3.3.6.1. Cindy Wigley

3.3.6.2. Terry Kennamer

3.3.6.3. Tony Simmons

3.3.6.4. Joe Van Bunch

3.3.6.5. Vince Edmonds

3.3.6.6. Mark Rains

3.4. School Processes

3.4.1. It is how to teach

3.4.2. It is what to teach

3.4.3. These processes are extremely powerful

3.4.4. Importance is equivalent to content

3.5. School Culture

3.5.1. All schools have their own unique culture

3.5.2. It is maintained with authority

3.5.3. It is rare for the teachers, parents, students and administration to come to an agreement

3.5.4. It is not easy to change the culture of a school

3.5.5. Politics effect the culture of a school

3.5.6. School culture is the values and beliefs a school has

4. Sociological Perspective Ch. 4

4.1. Theoretical Perspectives about the relationship between schools and society

4.1.1. International theories

4.1.1.1. look into what people view as non problematic

4.1.1.2. it is critiques and extensions of functional and conflict perspectives

4.1.2. Functional theories

4.1.2.1. believe education is supposed to create structures, programs, and curriculum that are all advanced, and encouraging

4.1.2.2. believe education is critical to create moral unity

4.1.3. Conflict theories

4.1.3.1. see schools as battlefields, where the students are against teacher, teachers against administrators and so on

4.1.3.2. they do see a problem in the relationship between schools and society

4.1.3.3. they emphasize struggle

4.1.3.4. believe that society is cultural, political, economical, and military

4.2. Effects of schooling on individuals

4.2.1. Knowledge and attitudes

4.2.1.1. academically oriented schools create higher rates of learning among their students

4.2.1.2. the students in higher social class generally achieve higher than other students

4.2.1.3. more school equals greater knowledge

4.2.1.4. education is related to the students self esteem and self worth

4.2.2. Teacher Behavior

4.2.2.1. the expectations a teacher holds a student to influences the students achievements

4.2.2.2. having low expectations causes the student to achieve little

4.2.2.3. students need to be praised more in order to feel good about themselves and what they are learning

4.2.3. De Facto Segregation

4.2.3.1. African-Americans are more likely to succeed, not to go to jail, and to live in desegregated communities when they go to a desegregated school

4.2.3.2. African-Americans are also more likely to graduate and go to college when they attend a desegregated school compared to one that is mainly or all African-American

4.2.4. Employment

4.2.4.1. schools determine who will have better jobs in the future

4.2.4.2. schools do not provide actual skills for future occupations

4.2.4.3. college graduates have better occupation options

4.2.4.4. college graduates receive better income

4.2.5. Gender

4.2.5.1. women are paid less than men for the same work

4.2.5.2. women have less job opportunites

4.2.5.3. male students tend to get more attention from teachers

4.2.5.4. women have a higher college rate, but they are at less prestigious ones

4.2.5.5. the gender gap is continuously getting smaller

4.2.5.6. by the end of high schools, girls usually have lower self esteem and aspirations

5. Philosophy of Education Ch. 5

5.1. Pragmatism

5.1.1. Key Researchers

5.1.1.1. William James

5.1.1.2. George Sanders Pierce

5.1.1.3. John Dewey

5.1.1.3.1. Dewey had the most important influence on progressive education

5.1.2. Generic notions

5.1.2.1. freedom and responsibility for the student

5.1.2.2. schools reflecting communities to help student gain democratic ways of life

5.1.2.3. uses projects and group learning

5.1.2.4. starts with needs and interests of the student

5.1.2.5. allows students to create their own plan of study

5.1.2.6. heavily relies on experimentation

5.1.3. Goal of education

5.1.3.1. main goal is growth

5.1.3.2. balance social role of school with its effects on the social, intellectual and personal development of the students

5.1.3.3. preparation for democratic life

5.1.3.4. balance needs of society and community, and the needs of students separately

5.1.4. Role of teacher

5.1.4.1. help students

5.1.4.2. encourage

5.1.4.3. write curriculum

5.1.4.4. plan courses of study with student

5.1.5. Methods of instruction

5.1.5.1. study individually or in a group

5.1.5.2. students can communicate quietly

5.1.5.3. projects about learned subjects

5.1.5.4. field trips that further educate

5.1.6. Curriculum

5.1.6.1. changes as interests and needs change

5.1.6.2. uses vocational and academic disciplines together

6. Curriculum and Pedagogy Ch. 7

6.1. Developmental Curriculum Theory

6.1.1. Builds problem solving skills

6.1.2. motivates students

6.1.3. Solo work

6.1.4. Group work

6.1.5. Whole class work

6.1.6. High concentration

6.1.7. Shows students how to be independent

6.1.8. Equal opportunity

6.1.9. Focus is on individual wants and needs

6.1.10. Curriculum matches interest

6.1.11. Creativity is encouraged

6.2. Dominant Traditions of Teaching

6.2.1. Mimetic Tradition

6.2.1.1. Relies on lectures and presentations

6.2.1.2. Process between knower (teacher) and learner (student)

6.2.1.3. Transmit specific knowledge to the class

6.2.1.4. Transfers knowledge

6.2.2. Trans-formative Tradition

6.2.2.1. Student-teacher communication

6.2.2.2. Help students change in a meaningful way

6.2.2.3. Use Q's and A's as effective communication

7. Educational Inequality CH. 9

7.1. Cultural Differences Theory

7.1.1. Ogbu's Theory

7.1.1.1. African American students do not do as well in school

7.1.1.2. African American students have a lower attainment level and lower performance level

7.1.1.3. African American students adapt to oppression they are faced with

7.1.1.4. African American students are taught by families and schools to accept that they are inferior and cannot live a better life

7.1.1.5. African American students need to deny their own cultural backgrounds and act like white students to succeed

7.1.2. Working-class and Nonwhite Students

7.1.2.1. See school and education as having no value

7.1.2.2. Resist dominant culture of schools

7.1.2.3. Accept the working-class culture

7.1.2.4. Resist academic success

7.1.2.5. Have high drop out rates

7.2. School-Centered Explanations

7.2.1. Between School Differences

7.2.1.1. The amount of education a student receives depends on social class

7.2.1.2. In working-class neighborhoods, the schools are more likely to have an authoritarian approach and teacher-directed pedagogic practices

7.2.1.3. In middle-class neighborhood, the schools are more likely to have less of an authoritarian approach and mpre pedagogic practices that are student-centered

7.2.1.4. In upper-class neighborhoods, the schools are more likely to be private, and have authoritarian pedagogic practices

7.2.2. Within-School Differences: Curriculum and Ability Grouping

7.2.2.1. During elementary school, students are places in classes based on SAT scores, and teacher recommendations

7.2.2.2. During secondary school, the students are split up by their ability

7.2.2.3. Tracking is believed to benefit schools by saving more challenging classes for harder working students

7.2.2.4. Tracking is also believed to be reproducing inequalities

7.2.2.5. Many believe tracking results in unequal education

7.2.2.6. Students who are placed in lower tracks begin to feel as if they could not succeed in a higher level track

7.2.2.7. Tracking causes students at the same school to receive different curriculum

7.2.2.8. Nonwhite and working-class students are more likely to be put in lower tracks

7.2.3. School Financing

7.2.3.1. There is a large gap between funding in wealthy and poor districts

7.2.3.2. Public schools are funded by local property taxes, and from federal and state government

7.2.3.3. Richer communities have more property tax, so more money goes to that school than one of a poor community

7.2.3.4. This method of funding will mostly likely stick around for years to come

7.2.4. Gender and Schooling

7.2.4.1. Boys tend to dominant in the classroom

7.2.4.2. Teachers expect more out of boys

7.2.4.3. Womens history is omitted in curriculum

7.2.4.4. Curriculum shows stereotypical gender roles

7.2.4.5. Girls are often limited to opportunities

7.2.4.6. Most of elementary teachers are female

7.2.4.7. Secondary education teachers tend to be more male

8. Educational Reform Ch. 10

8.1. School Based Reforms

8.1.1. Teacher Quality

8.1.1.1. Urban areas tend to have more unqualified teachers in their schools

8.1.1.2. About a fifth of teachers in secondary schools are not qualified

8.1.1.3. It is difficult for schools to improve their teacher quality due to tenure and layoff provisions

8.1.1.4. Out-of-field teaching causes higher drop-out rates

8.1.1.5. Teachers are being replaced at a fast pace, causing out-of-field teaching

8.1.2. Privatization

8.1.2.1. In the 1990s, private education companies became more involved in public education

8.1.2.1.1. they took over schools that were failing

8.1.2.1.2. success has yet to be determined

8.1.2.2. Some schools have replaced their traditional school with a school operated by a number of providers

8.1.2.2.1. Success has been mixed

8.1.2.2.2. Includes

8.2. Societal, Community, Economic and Political Reforms

8.2.1. Connecting School, Community, and Social Reforms

8.2.1.1. Highly needed in poverty schools

8.2.1.2. Hard to get in poverty schools

8.2.1.3. Needed to reduce achievement gap

8.2.1.4. Need to establish meaningful learning goals

8.2.1.5. Need to establish organization for student/teacher learning

8.2.1.6. Need to establish provided basic needs for all students

8.2.1.7. Need to establish intelligent, reciprocal accountability systems

8.2.1.8. Need to establish standards and support

8.2.1.9. Need to establish leadership to promote change

8.2.1.10. Need to establish a professional capacity

8.2.1.11. Need to establish a student-centered learning climate

8.2.1.12. Need to establish instructional guidance

8.3. School Finance Reforms

8.3.1. New Jersey

8.3.1.1. In 1970 Robinson versus Cahill was filed.

8.3.1.1.1. About discrimination against funding for different school districts that was causing unequal education

8.3.1.2. By 1973 the program was still not fully funded

8.3.1.3. In 1980 more evidence was found to support the inequality of schools in urban areas

8.3.1.4. In 1990 it was decided that schools needed more funding in the lower class communities.

8.3.1.5. In 1998 new programs were taken to action

8.3.1.5.1. Eliminated overcrowding

8.3.1.5.2. Allowed preschool for all 3-4 year olds

8.3.1.5.3. Allowed full day for kindergartners

8.3.1.5.4. Gave adequate space for all educational programs

8.3.1.5.5. Caused whole school reform

8.3.1.6. By 2009 these new programs were replaced with SFRA

8.3.1.6.1. Funding for districts was to be based on student needs

8.3.1.6.2. Supplied for at-risk students instead of all students

9. Equality of Opportunity Ch. 8

9.1. Educational Outcomes

9.1.1. Race

9.1.1.1. Has a direct impact on education

9.1.1.2. White students are more likely to read at an intermediate level

9.1.1.3. White students have the lowest drop out rates

9.1.1.4. White students get better scholarship opportunities

9.1.1.5. White students score higher on SAT

9.1.1.6. White students get a better overall education than minorities

9.1.2. Gender

9.1.2.1. Boys tend to be better at math than girls

9.1.2.2. Girls have a lower drop out rate

9.1.2.3. Girls are better at reading and writing than boys

9.1.2.4. Boys generally score higher on the SATs

9.1.2.5. More girls go to college

9.1.2.6. Girls are discriminated against socially and occupationally

9.1.3. Class

9.1.3.1. Teachers tend to favor upper and middle class students

9.1.3.2. Family income seems to be directly related to student success

9.1.3.2.1. Students from working class families have less support, and are less likely to be successful or finish school

9.1.3.2.2. Students from middle class families are more likely to speak standard

9.1.3.2.3. Students from upper class tend to get better opportunities and have a higher success rate

9.1.3.3. Students that come from working class are more likely to drop out

9.1.3.4. The higher social class of a student, the better college opportunities

9.2. The Coleman Study

9.2.1. Round 2

9.2.1.1. Private schools tend to do better for lower class students

9.2.1.2. Did not agree that Catholic schools did better than public schools

9.2.1.3. Catholic schools are becoming similar to public schools

9.2.2. Round 3

9.2.2.1. Agrees with Coleman

9.2.2.2. Composition has a larger effect on achievement than race or class

9.2.2.3. End biases towards white middle-class students

9.2.2.4. Social class and race predict success

9.2.2.5. Socioeconomic background and race determine where someone goes to school