My Foundations of Education

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My Foundations of Education by Mind Map: My Foundations of Education

1. Politics of Education

1.1. The Role of the School

1.1.1. In the broadest sense, the schools role is directly concerned with the aims, purposes and functions of education in a society.

1.2. Four purposes of Education

1.2.1. Intellectual, Political, Social and Economic

1.3. Explanations of unequal Performance

1.3.1. The school system is designed to allow the opportunity to succeed. If they do not, it may because they are as individuals, deficient in some manner that is deficient. This really depends on your view as a Radical, Liberal, or Conservative.

1.4. Definition of educational problems

1.4.1. 1. Decline of Standards

1.4.2. 2. Multicultural Education with cultural groups needed.

1.4.3. 3. Schools lost their traditional role of teaching moral standards and values. "decline of values or of civilization"

1.4.4. 4. Schools lost their individuality and freedom, their disciplinary function. "the decline of authority"

1.4.5. 5. Because they are state controlled and are immune from the laws of a competitive free market, schools are stifled by bureaucracy and inefficiency.

2. History of U.S. Education

2.1. Reform Movement with Most influence on Education

2.1.1. I believe the Reform movement that has had the biggest influence on education is the education for women and blacks. As a result, many opportunities opened for the economy. This also provided us with some of the most influential people in American History.

2.2. Historical Interpretation of US Education

2.2.1. The Radical Revisionist vision of the democratic liberal historians began to be challenged, thus the radical interpretation for US educational history is a more pessimistic one. They suggest that the process has been benefited the elites more than the masses and has not produced either equality of opportunity or results.

3. Sociological Perspectives

3.1. Theoretical Perspectives concerning the relationship between school and society:

3.1.1. Functionalism-Society is viewed as a kind of machine, where one part articulates with another to produce the dynamic energy required to make society work.

3.1.2. Conflict Theory-argue that the social order is not based on some collective agreement, but on dominant groups to impose their will on subordinate groups through force, computation, and manipulation.

3.2. Theoretical perspectives concerning the relationship between school and society

3.2.1. The theory as inadequate, is the best conceptual guide to understanding the relation between school and society because it gives one the intellectual scaffolding from which to hand empirical findings.

3.3. 5 effects of schooling on individuals that have the greatest impact on students

3.3.1. 1. Knowledge and Attitudes-the more education an individual receives, the more likely to be successful. Also related to well-being and self-esteem.

3.3.2. 2. Employment- A college and professional degree is important for earning money.

3.3.3. 3. Education and Mobility- The complex interplay between merit and privilege creates a tournament where the rules are not handed to everyone.

3.3.4. 4. Teacher behavior-Teachers expectations play a major role in encouraging or discouraging students to work to their full potential.

3.3.5. 5. Student Peer groups and Alienation- Cultures play an important role in shaping students educational experiences.

4. Philosophy of Education

4.1. Pragmatism

4.1.1. Generic Notations Dewey's form of Pragmatism- Instrumentalist and Experimentation

4.1.2. Key Researchers George Sanders, William James, John Dewey, Francis Bacon, John Locke, and Jean-Jacques Rosseau

4.1.3. Goal of Education Growth according to John Dewey, is the primary role, growth and more growth Progressive Education Dewey's ideas about education often referred to as "progressive", proposed that educators start with the needs and interests of the child in the classroom, allow the child to participate in planning the course of study, project method or group learning, and experimental learning.

4.1.4. Role of Teachers The teacher is no longer the authoriatian Teachers assume the position of the facilitator The teacher encourages, offers suggestions, questions, and helps implement courses of study The teacher writes the curriculum and has a command of several disciplines in order to implement curriculum

4.1.5. method of Instruction Children learn both individually and in groups Children should start their mode of inquiry by posing questions about what they want to know "problem solving" or "inquiry method" Field trips, and projects that reconstruct some aspect of the child's course of study Formal instruction abandoned. Traditional blocks of time for specific discipline instruction eliminated. Children converse quietly Stand up and stretch if needed Independent study, or work as a group

4.1.6. Curriculum "Expanding Environments" Core or Integrated Curriculum Student Investigations Relate to the needs and interests of the child Child centered curriculm Based on the needs and interests of the child Based on imagination and intuition

4.2. student centered philosophy of education

4.2.1. Existentialists believe that education should focus on the needs of individuals, cognitively and affectedly. They also believe that education should stress individuality. Teachers should understand their own "lived worlds" as well as that of the students in order to help them achieve the best "Lived worlds." The methods of instruction or "methods" are currently taught in the school of education. Curriculum is heavily biased toward the humanities. exposing students at early ages to problems as well as possibilities, horrors as well as accomplishments humankind is capable of producing. Generic notations-communism The goal of education includes theories termed reproduction theories and resistance theories.

5. Schools as Organizations

5.1. Identify major stakeholders in YOUR district by name (federal Alabama senators and House of Representative, state superintendent, representative on state school board, local superintendent, and all members on local school board.

5.2. Identify and describe the elements of change within 1. school process and 2. school cultures

6. Curriculum & Pedagogy

6.1. Explain a curriculum theory which you advocate (humanist, social efficiency, developmentalalist, or social meliorist

6.1.1. I agree with the theory of the developmentalist. It is related to the needs of the students rather than society. Schooling that relates to life experiences.

6.1.2. Two dominant traditions of teaching are the social meliorist tradition, and the social efficiency curriculum used in the United States.

7. Equality of Opportunity

7.1. Describe how class, race and gender each impact educational outcomes.

7.1.1. Race-more than any other single issue in the U.S. challenged the democratic ethos of the American dream. The ideals of equality of opportunity and justice have been contradicted with actual practices concerning blacks and other minorities.

7.1.2. Gender-an individuals gender was directly related to his or her educational attainment. However, in the last 30 years gender differences have been reduced.

7.1.3. Class-is related to the achievement of education through parental income. children from working class families are more likely to drop out. Mainly for family or work.

7.2. What are two responses to the Coleman Study from 1982?

7.2.1. The Coleman study in 1982- In the examination of effects on achievement, statistical controls on family background are introduced, in order to control on those background characteristics that are most related to achievement. The achievement differences between the private sectors and the public sector are reduced (more for other private schools than for Catholic schools) but differences remain.

8. Educational Inequality

8.1. Two types of cultural differences theory

8.1.1. Ogbu’s later work (Fordham & Ogbu, 1986) suggests that school success requires that black students deny their own cultural identities and accept the dominant culture of the schools, which is a white middle-class model. black students thus have the “burden of acting white” in order to succeed (Fordham, 1997

8.1.2. Ogbu’s macrosociological perspective is similar to those of Bowles and Gintis (1976), whose correspondence theory suggests that working-class students adapt to the unequal aspects of the class structure

8.2. Describe at least four School -centered (not student centered) explanations for educational inequality

8.2.1. Effective School Research-A climate of high expectations for students by teachers and administrators. Strong and effective leadership by a principal or school head. Accountability processes for students and teachers. The monitoring of student learning. A high degree of instructional time on task, where teachers spend a great deal of their time teaching and students spend a great deal of their time learning. Flexibility for teachers and administrators to experiment and adapt to new situations and problems.

8.2.2. The Curriculum and Pedagogic Practices- The effective school research points to how differences in what is often termed school climates affect academic performance. Much of this research looked at differences between schools in innercity, lower socioeconomic neighborhoods in order to demonstrate that schools can make a difference in these communities. Although there are problems with the research, most researchers agree that its findings support the argument that schools do affect educational outcomes, at times, independent of extra-school factors.

8.2.3. Gender and Schooling- The effective school research points to how differences in what is often termed school climates affect academic performance. Much of this research looked at differences between schools in innercity, lower socioeconomic neighborhoods in order to demonstrate that schools can make a difference in these communities. Although there are problems with the research, most researchers agree that its findings support the argument that schools do affect educational outcomes, at times, independent of extra-school factors.

8.2.4. School Financing- Jonathan Kozol (1991), in his muckraking book Savage Inequalities, compared public schools in affluent suburbs with public schools in poor inner cities. He documented the vast differences in funding between affluent and poor districts, and called for equalization in school financing.

9. Educational Reform

9.1. Describe two school based reforms:

9.1.1. Teacher Education: Get serious about standards, for both students and teachers. Reinvent teacher preparation and professional development. Fix teacher recruitment and put qualified teachers in every classroom. Encourage and reward teacher knowledge and skill. Create schools that are organized for student and teacher success. (National Commission on Teaching and America’s Future, 1996, pp. vi–vii) Teacher Quality: school improvement reformers have stressed the existence of teacher tenure and seniority based transfers and layoff provisions in union contracts as a primary factor in preventing an improvement of teacher quality. A number of provisions in the Race to the Top funding and new contracts like the one in Washington, D.C. have addressed some of these issues. In addition, many state laws based on RTT included provisions for Value Added Models (VAM) of teacher evaluations where quality is based on their student growth on standardized tests. Critics have pointed out that these models do not adequately control for the multiple variables that explain teacher quality and are thus unfair to teachers. Such VAMs have been opposed by teacher unions with advocates arguing that the unions are merely protecting their deficient members (see Special Issue of Educational Researcher (2015, including Darling-Hammond, 2015) for a summary of the research evidence on VAM). Although RTTS are not required by ESSA, such models continue to be used as part of teacher evaluations in some states.

9.2. Societal, economic, community or political reforms that impact education: