Foundations of Education

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Foundations of Education by Mind Map: Foundations of Education

1. Chapter 2 - Politics of Education

1.1. Identify and describe the four purposes of education.

1.1.1. *Intellectual - Cognitive skills in math, reading, science, history, language. *Political - To indoctrinate people into a particular order of patriotism. *Social - To help people be productive members of society. *Economic - Prepare students for their occupation.

1.2. Choose and describe a prospective for the following: 1) the role of the school; 2) explanations of unequal performance; and (3) definition of education problems.

1.2.1. Conservative states that in the role of education you are responsible for your own success.

2. Chapter 3 - History of U.S. Education

2.1. Choose and describe a reform movement that you think had the most influence on education.

2.1.1. Progressive Movement John Dewey Curriculum supports the needs of the children and thus gives knowledge/insight to human history and promotes impetus for change and betterman of society.

2.2. Choose and describe one historical interpretation of the U.S. Educaton.

2.2.1. Democratic-Liberal School Believe that the history of U.S. education involves the progressive evolution of a school system committed to providing equality of opportunity for all.

3. Chapter 4 - Sociological Perspectives

3.1. Define the theoretical perspective concerning the relationship between school and society.

3.1.1. Functionalism Poses that society is best when a consensus rules. Education creates the moral unity for social cohesion and harmony. Conflict is a breakdown of shared values.

3.1.2. Conflict Theory Poses that influential groups impose their will on subordinate group.

3.1.3. Interactionalism Poses that society develops as a result of interactions between students and teachers.

3.2. Identify and describe 5 effects of schooling on idividuals that you think have the greatest impact on students as explained in the book.

3.2.1. 1. Student Peer Groups and Alienation *Rebellious students and violence in schools. *Nerds, coolness, and athletes. *Four major types of college students include; 1. Careerists which are middle and upper class and do not have a good college experience. 2. Intellectuals come from highly educated families, earned academic honors, and are politically motivated. 3. Strivers come from middle and lower class hard workers and did not have great academic success but had a sense of accomplishment with their degree. 4. The unconnected came from all backgrounds and did not participate or achieve any success and were dissatisfied.

3.2.2. 2. Educational and Inequality *American society resembles a triangle where most people are at the base. *The top 20% in the U.S. possess 75% of the wealth. *The top 2% of the world possess 80% of the wealth. *Are social classes perpetuated by society and schools?

3.2.3. 3. De facto Segregation *People segregate themselves into their comfort areas. *Racial integration benefits minorities more than the majority. *Integration does not seem to harm the majority.

3.2.4. 4. Gender Biases *Men are still paid more for equivalent jobs. *Academics are leveling between the sexes. *Schools are still perpetuating gender inequalities.

3.2.5. 5. Teacher Behavior *Teachers may have as many as 1000 interactions with students on a daily basis. *Teachers expectations directly influence student achievement. *Self-fulfilling prophecy has a direct impact on student success. *The more teachers demanded from their students results in higher student self esteem and success.

4. Chapter 5 - Philosophy of Education

4.1. Describe the particular world view of one student-centered philosophy of education including information: generic notions, key researchers, goal of education, role of teacher, method of instruction, and curriculum.

4.1.1. Pragmatism John Dewey Progressivism George Counts Social Reconstructionism Learning through experience. The approach to learning is by scientific inquiry. Encourages people to find processes that work to achieve their desired outcome. Goal of Education Provide students with the knowledge to improve society. Role of Teacher Facilitator of learning activities. Methods of Instruction Learning individually as well as in groups. Curriculum Integrated core subjects, teaching across curriculum.

5. Chapter 6 - Schools as Organizations

5.1. Alabama Senators

5.1.1. Richard Shelby and Doug Jones

5.2. Alabama House of Representatives

5.2.1. Bradley Byrne, Martha Roby, Mike Rogers, Robert Aderholt, Mo Brooks, Gary Palmer, and Terri Sewell.

5.3. Alabama SBOE President

5.3.1. Kay Ivey

5.4. Alabama SBOE Secretary and Executive Officer

5.4.1. Ed Richardson

5.5. Alabama SBOE Board Members

5.5.1. Jackie Zeigler, Betty Peters, Stephanie Bell (Also Vice President), Yvette Richardson, Ella Bell, Cynthia Sanders, Jeffrey Newman, and Mary Scott Hunter.

5.6. Cullman County Superintendent

5.6.1. Shane Barnette

5.7. Cullman County School Board Members

5.7.1. Heath Allbright, Kenny Brockman, Chris Carter, Mike Graves, Wayne Myrex, Jason Speegle, and Gene Sullins.

6. Chapter 7 - Curriculum and Pedagogy

6.1. Explain a curriculum theory which you advocate (humanist, social efficiency, developmentalist, or social meliorist).

6.1.1. Social Meliorists is an idea in metaphysical thinking holding that progress is a real concept leading to an improvement of the world. The social meliorist also asks for courses to solve each new social problem. This may include educating students in general political and economic changes, but most of the time it means promoting courses that solve problems.

6.2. Identify and describe the two dominant traditions of teaching.

6.2.1. Mimetic Conservative and says that there is a basic core of knowledge to be learned by all.

6.2.2. Transformative Students needs should be the main focus of the curriculum.

7. Chapter 8 - Equality of Opportunity

7.1. Describe how class, race, and gender each impact educational outcomes.

7.1.1. Class Studies show that class is related to achievement on reading tests and basic skills tests. Children from working class families are more likely to underachieve.

7.1.2. Race It is hard to separate race from class. Minority students receive fewer educational opportunities than whites.

7.1.3. Gender In the last 20 years, significant gains have been made to equalize gender educational and professional attainment.

7.2. What were the two responses to the Coleman Study from 1982?

7.2.1. Private school students outperform public school students.

7.2.2. Differences in schools do make a difference. The difference is in how much more demanding private schools are of their students.

8. Chapter 9 - Educational Inequality

8.1. Explain at least two types of cultural differences theory.

8.1.1. 1. African American students do less well in school because they adapt to their oppressed position in the class and caste structure. It is believed that there is a "job ceiling" for African Americans in the United States and that in order for African Americans to be successful they must deny their own culture identities and accept the dominant culture of the schools, which is white middle-class. 2. Working-class and nonwhite students resist the dominant culture of the schools. These students reject the white middle-class culture of academic success and embrace a different, often antischool culture--one that is opposed to the culture of schooling as it currently exists.

8.2. Describe at least four school-centered (not student-centered) explanations for educational inequality.

8.2.1. School Financing There is a vast difference in funding between affluent and poor school districts. Public schools are financed through a combination of revenues from local, state, and federal sources. Local property taxes is a significant source of income. Property taxes are higher in more affluent communties, these communities are able to raise significantly more money for schools than poorer communities with lower property taxes.

8.2.2. Effective Schools Effectice schools that produced usually positive academic results given what would be expected , based on the socioeconomic composition of the school that are unusually effective in general have the following characteristics: ---A climate of high expectations for students by teachers and administrators. ---Strong and effective leadership by a principal or school head. ---Accountability processes for students and teachers. ---The monitoring of student learning. ---A high degree of instructional time on task, where teachers spend a great deal of their time teaching and students spend a great deal of their time learning. ---Flexbility for teachers and administrators to experiment and adapt to new stituations and problems.

8.2.3. Between-School Differences: Curriculum and Pedagogic Practices Schools in working-class neighborhoods are far more likyl to have authoritarian and teacher-directed pedagogic practices, and to have a vocationally or social efficiency curriculum at the secondary level. Schools in middle-class communities are more likely to have less authoritarian and more student-centered pedagogic practices and to have a humanistic liberal arts college preparatory curriculum at the secondary level. Upper-class students are more likely to attend elite private schools, with authoritarian pedagogic practices and a classical-humanistic college preparatory curriculum at the secondary level.

8.2.4. Gender and Schooling Feminists agree that schooling often limits the educational opportunities and life chances of women in a number of ways. For example, boys and girls are socialized differently through a variety of school processes. First, curriculum materials portray men's and women's roles often in stereotypical and traditional ways. Second, the traditional curriculum "silences women" by omitting significant aspects of women's history's history and women's lives from discussion. Feminists call for a more gender-fair curriculum.

9. Chapter 10 - Educational Reform

9.1. Describe two school-based reforms (school-based, school-business partnerships, privatization, school-to-work programs, teacher education or teacher quality).

9.1.1. School-Business Partnerships During the 1980's business leaders were getting concerned that the nation's schools were not producing the kinds of graduates necessary to revive the U.S. economy. School-business partnerships were formed. The most notable one was the Boston Compact. It began in 1982. In 1991, the Committee to Support Philadelphia Public Schools pledged management assistance and training to the Philadelphia School District. School-business partnerships have attracted considerable media attention, but there is little convincing evidence that they have improved schools.

9.1.2. Privatizations Since the 1990's, the traditional distinction between public and private education has become blurred. The Edison company took over the management of failing schools. The Philadelphia Public Schools were taken over by the state of Pennsylvania in 2003 due to low student achivement, hired-for-profit companies, including Edison, as well as local universities.

9.2. Describe at least two societal, economic, community, or political reforms.

9.2.1. Integrative Realm Basic skills and knowledge is the focus for school improvement and student achievement.

9.2.2. Developmental Realm Focus is on developing the whole child by having schools become more humane institutions.

10. Funding of education in Alabama

10.1. Funded by sales tax, property taxes and sales tax.

11. John Dewey

11.1. Progressiveness - Father of education

11.2. Scientific inquiry - Gets the student to ask why.

12. Civil Rights Act of 1963 changed everything about education.

13. Plessy vs. Ferguson

13.1. 1896 Separate but equal facilities

14. What is Sociology?

14.1. Understanding how social aspirations and fears force people to ask questions about the societies and culture in which they live.