Foundations of Education

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Foundations of Education by Mind Map: Foundations of Education

1. The

1.1. Text book p. 55-60

1.2. Joseph Conrad "Heart of Darkness"

2. Sociology of Education

2.1. Theoretical perspective: an intergration of all known principles,laws, and information pertaining to a specific area of study.

2.1.1. Fundamentalist:Emile Durkheim viewed society as a kind of machine where one part articulates with another to produce the dynamic energy required to make society work.

2.1.2. Conflict theory:Karl Marx; they do not see the relation between school and society as unproblematic or straightforward. Conflict sociologist emphasize struggle.

2.1.3. Interactionist Theory: relation of school and society are primary critiques and extensions of the functionalist and conflict perspectives. They attempt to make commonplace strange by paying attention to the relationships between teachers and students

2.2. Effects of Schooling on individuals

2.2.1. Knowledge and attitudes

2.2.1.1. More years ofschooling lead to greater achievement,

2.2.2. Employment

2.2.2.1. graduating college leads to greater employment opportunities

2.2.3. Job performance

2.2.3.1. This is not related to how many years an individual is in school

2.2.4. Inside schools

2.2.4.1. The cultures of the schools affect the perspective of the student;

2.2.5. Teacher behavior

2.2.5.1. Teacher expectations of students directly affect their achievements

2.2.5.2. Teachers are models for the students.They set standards for students and influence student self-esteem and sense of efficacy.

3. CH.3:History of Education

3.1. Educational Reaction and Reform and the Standards Era:

3.1.1. During this era, the standards were created that we currently go by.Students were required to complete 4 years of English, 3 years of math, 3 years of science, 3 years of SS, and half a year of computer science.These were required from high school students because these are the things colleges and universities look for.

3.2. Historical interpretation:Lawrence Cremin saw the education of the U.S

4. Ch.2: Politics of Education

4.1. Four purposes of schooling

4.1.1. Intellectual

4.1.1.1. Purpose is to teach basic cognitive skills; reading,math,writing

4.1.2. Political

4.1.2.1. Purpose is to

4.1.2.1.1. inculate allegiance to the existing political order. Prepare citizens who will help in this order;help assimilate diverse cultural groups

4.1.3. Social

4.1.3.1. Purpose is to help solve social problems

4.1.4. Economic

4.1.4.1. purpose is to help students prepare for their later occupational roles

4.2. Political perspective

4.2.1. Conservative

4.2.1.1. created by William Graham Sumner

4.2.1.2. enables the strongest individuals to survive . individuals must compete in social environment.

4.2.1.3. the free market and system is most respectful of human needs

4.2.1.4. Role of school:sees it is a way to provide the necessary educational training to make sure the talented/ hardworking receive what they need.

4.2.1.5. Explanations of Unequal Educational Performance:individuals or groups of students rise and fall on their own intelligence ,hard work,initiative and achievement is based on hard work and sacrifice.

4.2.1.6. Definition of Educational Problem: 1.decline of standards.2. decline of cultural literacy. 3. decline of values or of civilization 4.decline of authority 5.schools are stifled by bureaucracy and inefficiency

5. Memorization

5.1. Spanish

5.1.1. New vocabulary

6. CH.5 Philosophy of Education

6.1. Pragmatism

6.1.1. Founders:George Sanders Peirce,William James, John Dewey

6.1.1.1. John Locke: believed that the mind was a "blank slate".One receives knowledge through one's senses.

6.1.2. Genetic Notions: instrumentalism and experimentalism. Dewey:progressive;proposed that educators start with the needs and interests of the child in the classroom,allow students to participate in planning his or her course of study, employ project method or group learning and depend heavily on experimental learning. Dewey believed that school should reflect the community.

6.1.3. Goal of Education: Dewey:believed philosophy had a responsibility to society and ideas requires lab testing.The primary role of education is GROWTH.

6.1.4. Role of the Teacher:Teacher is not the authoritarian; teacher is the facilitator. Encourages, offers suggestions,questions, and help plan and implement curriculum.

6.1.5. Methods of Instruction:Problem-solving or inquiry method. Students learn independently and in groups.

6.1.6. Curriculum:the curriculum of expanding environments. Progressive educators change curriculum as the social order changes. Child -centered curriculum

6.2. Pragmatism: encourages people to find processes that work in order to achieve their desired ends. Are action oriented

7. CH.6:Schools and Organizations

7.1. Stakeholders:Federal: Senators;Doug Jones & Richard Shelby State Representatives: Terri Sewell, Mo Brooks, Martha Roby, Bradley Byrne,Gary Palmer, Robert Aderholt,& Michael D.Rogers. ;State Superintendent:Matthew Akin

7.2. Stakeholders:Local:Senator,Arthur Orr& Bill Holtsclaw Representative: Mike Ball & Mac McCutcheon Local Superintendent: Matthew Akin Local board of education:Elisa Ferrell. Walker McGinnis, Beth Wilder,Michelle Watkins,& Pam Hill.

8. CH.7:Curriculum & Pedagogy

8.1. Curriculum Theory: Developmentalist curriculum: focuses on the needs of the student more than the needs of society.It presses the processes of teaching and the content:

8.2. Dominant traditions of teaching: Mimetic and Transformative. Mimetic tradition: based on the viewpoint that the purpose of education is to transmit specific knowledge to students. Didactic method:a method that states lectures and presentations as a form of communication. States that education is a process of transferring information from one to the other. Transformative tradition rests on a different set of assumptions about teaching and learning process. They do not see transmission of knowledge. They reject authoritarian relationship between the knower(teacher) and the learner(student)

9. CH.8 Equality of Opportunity

9.1. How class, race and gender impact educational outcome: CLASS: Different social classes have different expectations. Students in upperand middle class have higher expectations to finish high school., college. Students in lower class have lower expectations. RACE:has different impact on whether he or she is likely to achieve greatness. Bigger percentage to drop out of school for African Americans and Hispanics. Higher percentage of Hispanics are reading at higher levels in reading. GENDER:Students are often better students. Females are likely to be better students. Less likely to drop out. Males outperform females in math.

9.2. RESPONSES TO COLEMAN STUDY: There isnt one subject where students in public schools performed better than students in private schools. Private schools are better for students who are from lower-income families.

10. CH.9:EDUCATIONAL INEQUALITY

10.1. 2 CULTURAL DIFFERENCES THEORY: John Ogbu: stated that black children do not do well in school because they adapt to what is being taught to them at home. Suggests that working students adapt unequal aspects of the class structure. Bernstein denied that working class language is deficient. Stated that cultural and class differences are a product of an unequal economic system and that schools reward middle class communication codes.

10.2. School-Centered Explanation:: suggest school processes are central to understanding unequal educational performances.

11. CH.10:EDUCATIONAL REFORM:

11.1. SCHOOL-BASED REFORM:

11.1.1. PRIVATIZATION:Private schools have become involved with public school situations.

11.1.2. TEACHER EDUCATION: The need for teacher education and teaching to be presented the correct way has been a small issue. Individuals realized that less people wanted to teach so they believed they should make it more interesting.