Foundations of Education

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Foundations of Education by Mind Map: Foundations of Education

1. Educational Reform

1.1. School-Business Partnerships were formed in the 1980s because business leaders became concerned that the nation's schools were not producing the kinds of graduates necessary for a revitalization of the U.S. economy. Most notable was the Boston Compact in 1982.

1.1.1. School-to-work Programs were formed in the 1990s. Their intent was to extend what had been a vocational emphasis to non-college-bound students regarding skills necessary for successful employment and to stress the importance of work-based learning.

1.2. State Intervention and Mayoral Control has a significant impact on education. State has to do with the statewide testing and assessment of pupils. State makes sure teachers are certified to teach. State is how parents monitor grades with report cards that go out quarterly.

1.2.1. School Finance Reforms are for schools that may need more funding to serve children in the poorer school districts. Funding was equalized between urban and suburban school districts.

2. History Of Education

2.1. The Age of Reform: The Rise of the Common School. Horace Mann became Massachusetts and started the first school. To me this had to most impact on education because he was able to come up with free public education. Citizens voted to pay taxes to build better schools and to pay teachers higher salaries and train teachers to teach. All of this happening led to the huge changes of education.

2.2. The Radicals believe that even with all the different reforms/eras, the middle class and minorities still got the short end of the stick. They don't deny that the system has expanded, but they believe it only expanded for the wealthy and elites.

3. Educational Inequality

3.1. Theory 1: Ogbu argued that African American children to less well in school because they adapt to there oppressed position in the class and caste structure. He believes AA families and schools socialize their children to deal with their inferior life changes rather than encourage them to internalize those values and skills necessary for positions that will not be open to them.

3.1.1. Theory 2: Working class and nonwhite students as resisting the dominate culture of the schools. these students reject the white middle-class culture of academic success and embrace a different, often antischool culture.

4. Sociology of Education

4.1. Functionalism where one part works with another to produce the energy to make society work. Moral unity is the foundation of society.

4.1.1. Knowledge and Attitude to me play a big part. Its good to be knowledgeable about your passion and have a good attitude about when explaining it to others. For example a good car salesman knows a lot about the car he is trying to sale. He is going to have a good attitude or he is not going to get the sale. Gender is not near what it used to be when it comes to impacting students. In one way it has effected me is my passion to coach. I know a lot about my sport, but the head of our organization (Male) still thinks I'm not up to par, so to speak. Good thing I don't give up easy.

4.2. Conflict Theories talks about the importance of opinions. This is where all points of view in society come together. Societies including economic, political, cultural, and military.

4.2.1. Inside the schools plays a big role as well. Its where we learn our social skills to be able to go out and get jobs and meet people. Student peer groups and alienation- AKA bullying. This is impacts our schools everyday. Its the peer groups that gang up on other shy solo individuals. This leads to violence and sometimes suicide.

4.3. Interactionalism is the big picture. Its what students and teachers actually do in school. Its the actions between the two.

4.3.1. Teachers/coaches are probably some of the most important people I have had the pleasure of encountering. I strongly believe they play the biggest role on shaping young people and motivate them to do things the never thought they could accomplish.

5. Politics of Education

5.1. Intellectual- teaching basic skills such as reading, writing and mathematics. Also helps teach students to think for themselves.

5.1.1. Role of the School: I agree with the liberal perspective because it stresses the socialization aspect and the belief in equal opportunity. But on the other hand the conservative perspective awarding the most talented and hard-working individual. Earning is sweeter then someone handing it to you.

5.2. Political- to teach students the basic laws and understand society. Understanding the difference in cultures.

5.3. Social- Skills that students learn to interact with other classmates or other social settings such as: school, sports, church, families gatherings.

5.3.1. Explanations of unequal performance: The conservative perspective believes that you will succeed or fail on their own based on their work ethic. Work hard=Success or As / Work less= Failure or Cs and Ds.

5.4. Economic- Preparing students for their future obstacles. Examples would be: Work ethic, and how coachable you are, how well you are at interviews.

5.4.1. Educational Problems: Conservative perspective because I agree that the standards of excellence has gone down in the past because of equal opportunity.

6. Schools as Organizations

6.1. Federal Senators: Doug Jones and Richard Shelby House of Representatives: Bradley Byrne, Martha Roby, Mike Rogers, Robert Aderholt, Mo Brooks, Gary Palmer, Terry Sewell State Superintendent: Ed Richardson (interim) Local Superintendent: Matt Massey (Madison County) Local Board Members: Nathan Curry, Angie Bates, Mary Louise Stowe, Dave Weis, Shere Rucker.

6.2. Because schools are so deeply political, effecting change within them is very difficult. Teachers are represented by their unions. Board members struggle with teachers pay and productivity. All of this comes together to form bureaucracies which is my understanding of school cultures based on the text Conflict is a necessary part of change. New behaviors must be learned because change requires new relationships and behaviors. Team building must extend to the entire school. Process and content are interrelated. All these quotes indicate, changing the culture of a school in order to make the school more learner centered requires time, effort, intelligence, and good will.

7. Physiology of Education

7.1. I chose to discuss Pragmatism. I liked this philosophy of education because it allows you to be your own teacher. Its self learning. If there is a problem, one has to consider options to fix the problem, then take action and see the results. Dewey concluded that "children were active, organic beings, growing and changing," thus challenging children to grow and think for themselves. Which brings me to my next point: the goal of education. It should function as a preparation for life. The role of the teacher becomes more of a guidance. She will ask the questions to lead the students in the right direction, but ultimately let them figure out the problem on their own. Methods of instruction included learning in groups and individually. Dewey proposed tables and chairs be un-nailed from floors so students could interact in group settings. With all this being said, Dewey lead students and teachers to "expand the curriculum" so that students could learn from their own questions with actions and results, and teachers were there to guide them into the end result or solution to the problem.

8. Curriculum and Pedaogy

8.1. Developmentalist curriculum because it is related to the needs of and the interest of the student rather than the needs of society.

8.2. Social Efficiency Curriculum and the Stratification of Curriculum.

9. Equality and Opportunity

9.1. Students from the upper class and middle class are more likely to finish school. Whereas lower class and working class have less expectations for their children

9.2. An individuals race has a direct impact on how much education he or she is likely to achieve.

9.3. Females are less likely to drop of out school than males, and are more likely to have a higher level of reading proficiency than males. The same is true for writing.

9.4. Response 1: the differences between public and Catholic schools are statistically significant, but in terms of significant differences in learning, the results are negligible.

9.5. Response 2: Where an individual goes to school is often related to her race and socioeconomic background, but the racial and socioeconomic composition of a school has a greater effect on student achievement than an individual's race and class.