Foundations of Education

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Foundations of Education by Mind Map: Foundations of Education

1. Politics of Education Ch. 2

1.1. Four Purposes of Schooling

1.1.1. Intellectual Purpose - This purpose is to teach basic cognitive skills such as reading, writing, and mathematics; to transmit specific knowledge, and to help students acquire higher-order thinking skills such as analysis, evaluations, and synthesis.

1.1.2. Political Purpose - This purpose is to inculcate allegiance to the existing political order (Patriotism); to prepare citizens who will participate in this political order to help assimilate diverse cultural groups into a common political order; and to teach children the basic laws of society.

1.1.3. Social Purpose - This purpose is to help solve social problems; to work as one of many institutions, such as the family and the church (or synagogue) to ensure social cohesion; and to socialize children into various roles, behaviors, and values of the society. This process, referred to by sociologists as socialization, is a key ingredient to the stability of any society.

1.1.4. Economic Purpose - This purpose is to prepare students for their later occupational roles and to select, train, and allocate individuals into the division of labor.

1.2. Perspectives

1.2.1. The conservative perspective sees the "Role of School" as providing the necessary educational training to ensure that the most talented and hard working individuals receive the tools necessary to maximize economic and social productivity. They feel that schools socialize children into the adult roles necessary to the maintenance of the social order.

1.2.2. "Explanation of Unequal Educational Performance" - The liberal perspective argues that individual students or groups of students begin school with different life chances and therefore some groups have significantly more advantages than others. Therefore, society must attempt through policies and programs to equalize the playing field so that students from disadvantaged backgrounds have a better chance.

1.2.3. The Radicals definition of educational problems - 1) The educational system has failed the poor, minorities, and women through classist, racist, sexist, and homophobic policies. 2) The schools have stifled critical understanding of the problems of American society through a curriculum and teaching practices that promote conformity. 3) The traditional curriculum is classist, racist, sexist, and homophobic and leaves out the cultures, histories, and voices of the oppressed. 4) In general, the educational system promotes inequality of both opportunity and results.

2. History of U.S. Education Ch. 3

2.1. Education for Women and Blacks - During this early period women were seen as nothing more than a homemaker to the male and education was viewed as to harmful and stressful for women. Strides were made for women in the mid 19th century and progress was made on the educational front. Although education for women was expanding for women pre Civil War, education for blacks was severely limited. After the Civil War was over congress passed the 13th and 14th Amendment which freed 4,000,000 slaves and gave full citizenship to ex-slaves. Freedman's Bureau helped eventually through time set up historically black colleges and even though blacks weren't fully excepted in education yet it was a stepping stone for the future as we know it. Now women and blacks are able to receive the same education as everyone else.

2.2. Conservative Perspectives - They argued that U.S. students knew very little and that U.S. schools were mediocre, and pointed out the failure to fulfill its lofty social goals.

3. Sociological Perspectives Ch. 4

3.1. Theoretical Perspectives

3.1.1. Functionalism - Functionalist view society as a kind of machine, where one part articulates with another to produce the dynamic energy required to make society work. In other words, they see society as interconnected parts that work together in harmony to maintain balance. Functionalist see education reform as something that is supposed to create structures, programs, and curricula that are technically advanced, rational, and encourage social unity.

3.1.2. Conflict Theory - This theory sees society as a competition, and focuses on the distribution of resources, power, and inequality. Where functionalists emphasize cohesion in explaining social order, conflict socialists emphasize struggle. From a conflict point of view, schools are similar to social battlefields, where students struggle against teachers, teachers against administrators, and so on. Conflict theory is better at explaining social change, and weaker at explaining social stability.

3.1.3. Interactionalism - Interactionist theories about the relation between school and society are mainly critiques and extensions of the functionalist and conflict perspectives. They see those theories as very abstract, and emphasize structure and process at a very general level of analysis. They feel that the interactions between students and students, and students and teachers are major in school and society.

3.2. 5 Effects of Schooling - 1) Knowledge - The more years of schooling leads to greater knowledge even though there are other things that can affect a persons ability to learn. 2) Attitude - With more schooling and more knowledge comes better self-esteem and well-being. 3) Employment - It's a proven fact that the better educated you are the more opportunities you will have in the job market. Research shows that large corporations require high levels of education for white-collar, managerial, or administrative jobs. 4) Education - Education in certain areas has a tremendous effect on social movement. This has got to do with the view of public and private schools and social classes. 5) Mobility - For the middle class, increased education may be directly linked to upward occupational mobility. For the lower class and rich, education may not change their situation at all. Education is not guaranteed to lift someone out of poverty and lack of education will not knock someone out of their high social class. So education will not necessarily change a persons social class or help them in occupational mobility.

4. Philosophy of Education Ch. 5

4.1. EXISTENTIALISM

4.1.1. Generic Notions - Existentalists believe that we are all individuals that are placed in this world alone and we must make sense out of the chaos we encounter in our day to day lives.

4.1.2. Key Researchers - Could date back to nineteenth-century European philosopher Soren Kierkegaard (1813-1855). More recent philosophers include Martin Buber (1878-1965), Karl Jaspers (1883-1969), Jean Paul Sartre (1935-1986), and Maxine Greene.

4.1.3. Goal of Education - To existentialists, education should focus on the cognitive and affective needs of the individual. They also believe that education should stress individuality; that it should include discussion of the non-rational as well as the rational world. They also believe that the tensions of living in the world - in particular, anxiety generated through conflict should be addressed.

4.1.4. Role of Teacher - Teachers should understand their own world they live in as well as their students in order to help their students achieve the best "lived worlds" they can. Also teachers must expose themselves to resistant students, take risks, and work constantly to enable their students to become in Greene's words, "Wide Awake."

4.1.5. Method of Instruction - Since existentialist believe that each child has a different learning style, it's up to the teacher to discover what works for each child. So ultimately the student and teacher work together to discover knowledge.

4.1.6. Curriculum - Existentialists would choose curriculum heavily biased toward the humanities. Literature has a big meaning for them since literature is able to evoke responses in readers that might move them to new levels of awareness. They also encourage art, drama, and music. They believe that exposing students at early ages to problems as well as possibilities, and to the horrors as well as accomplishments humankind is capable of producing.

5. Schools as Organizations Ch. 6

5.1. Stakeholders

5.1.1. Federal / Senators - Lamar Alexander, Bob Corker House of Representative - Scott DesJariais

5.1.2. State / Superintendent - Dr. Sara Heyburn Representative on State Board - Mr. Gordon Ferguson

5.1.3. Local / Superintendent - Dr. Bill Heath Board Members - Sammy Tucker, Kevin Posey, Stan Holden, Johnny Collins, Veronica King, Jennifer Haynes, Jerry Pendergrass, Thomas Stevenson

5.2. Elements of Change

5.2.1. School Processes - School processes are elusive and hard to define, but are very powerful despite being hard to define. That being said, change is not impossible. To do so, planned change requires new ways of thinking and teachers must be at the forefront of educational change.

5.2.2. School Cultures - Changing the culture within schools requires patience, skill, and good will. It's been found that this it is not an easy task for teachers, administrators, parents, community members, and students to agree on how that is done best. That being said, new behaviors must be learned, team building must be pushed, and process and content are related and should be seen as such.

6. Curriculum and Pedagogy Ch. 7

6.1. Developmentalist Curriculum - This curriculum is all about the needs and interests of the students rather than the needs of society. It's flexible in both how and what is taught and wants to relate the lessons that are taught to the students everyday lives so that the lesson can become more meaningful.

6.2. Two Dominant Traditions of Teaching

6.2.1. 1) The mimetic tradition is based of the relationship between the teacher and student. This tradition relies on lecture or presentation as the main form of communication with an emphasis on measurable goals.

6.2.2. 2) The transformative tradition believes that the purpose of education is not just for transferring information, but also meant to help change the student intellectually, creatively, spiritually, and emotionally. Those that follow this tradition feel that teaching and learning indistinguishably linked.

7. Equality and Opportunity Ch. 8

7.1. EDUCATIONAL OUTCOMES

7.1.1. Race

7.1.1.1. 1) DROP OUT RATE 16-24 year olds = 5.2% White, 7.4% Black, 17.6%Hispanic.

7.1.1.2. 2) READ AT INTERMEDIATE LEVEL amongst 17 year olds = 87% of White students, 70% of Black students, 74% of Hispanic students.

7.1.1.3. 3) SAT scores = Hispanic and Black students have lower scores than White students which relate to college admission.

7.1.1.4. 4) Black and Hispanic students don't receive the same educational opportunities as Whites.

7.1.2. Class

7.1.2.1. 1) Education is expensive. Upper and middle class have a better advantage to pay for school.

7.1.2.2. 2) Expectation of finishing school is lower than upper and middle class.

7.1.2.3. 3) Middle and upper class students are likely to speak standard English better than lower class students which is an educational asset.

7.1.2.4. 4) Teachers have been found to think more highly of middle class students. Peer groups have an impact on student learning

7.1.2.5. 5) It's more likely middle and upper class students will attend college.

7.1.3. Gender

7.1.3.1. 1) Females are less likely to drop out of school and the level of reading and writing is higher than males.

7.1.3.2. 2) Males outperform females in Math.

7.1.3.3. 3) Data shows that girls have caught up with boys in almost all measures of academic achievement.

7.1.3.4. 4) Liberals believe this is the success of educational reforms.

7.1.3.5. 5) Conservatives that the decline in male achievement is the result of the "feminizing" of the classroom.

7.1.4. RESPONSES TO COLEMAN STUDY FROM 1982

7.1.4.1. Response #1 - Jencks estimated that the annual increment attributable to Catholic schooling was tiny. This means that there is a significant difference between public and Catholic schools, but with significant differences in learning, results are negligible.

7.1.4.2. Response #2 - According to Borman & Dowling, where a student goes to school is based on their race & socioeconomic background. They believe the racial and socioeconomic makeup of the school has the greater effect on student achievement. The also believe that in school interactions dominated by middle class values are largely responsible for gaps in student achievement.

8. Educational Inequality Ch. 9

8.1. Two Types of Cultural Differences Theory

8.1.1. #1 - * Black students don't do as well in school because they adapt to their oppressed position in class and caste structure. * There is a job-ceiling for blacks and black families and schools socialize their children to deal with their inferior life chances instead of encouraging them to gain the necessary skills for positions that will not be open for them.

8.1.2. #2 - Working class and non-white students resist the dominant culture of schools. ( basically rejecting the white-middle class culture of academic success and embrace the anti-school culture.

8.2. Four School Centered Explanations

8.2.1. #1 is School Financing - Basically the amount of money that is raised for a local school is based on a combination of local, state, and federal sources. Local taxes are the primary source and that is based on the value of the property in the area. It's easier for affluent communities to raise more money because they live in a better area. Poorer communities can't raise as much because the property isn't as high in value.

8.2.2. #2 is Effective School Research - This was research that found there were certain characteristics of effective schools and that poorer communities didn't have these characteristics.

8.2.3. #3 is Curriculum and Pedagogic Practices - This speaks on how the working-class, middle-class, and upper-class all have different pedagogic practices. Working-class = (Authoritarian and teacher-directed) Middle-class = (less authoritarian, more student centered practices, and have humanistic liberal arts college prep curriculum in the secondary level) Upper-class = attend elite private schools, with authoritarian practices, and a classical humanistic college prep curriculum in the secondary level)

8.2.4. #4 is Curriculum and Ability Grouping - This is how students are divided into groups based on teacher recommendations, standardized test scores, and characteristics such as race, gender, or class.

9. Educational Reform Ch. 10

9.1. School Based Reforms

9.1.1. Privatization

9.1.1.1. * For-profit companies took over the management of failing schools and districts

9.1.1.2. * The companies also have the majority of the contracts for supplemental tutoring

9.1.1.3. * Corporations see the multi-billion dollar education industry as a lucrative market

9.1.1.4. * In higher education, some for-profit companies successfully educated young adults while others have had their schools closed by the federal government due to low graduation rates.

9.1.2. Teacher Quality

9.1.2.1. * Recruiting and keeping high quality teachers is important

9.1.2.2. * Teachers are highly qualified but are teaching subjects where they aren't highly qualified which is a practice called out-of-field teaching

9.1.2.3. * Problems with staffing in urban schools - Principles find it easier to hire unqualified teachers rather that qualified ones

9.1.2.4. * Provisions have been put into place in order to attract more qualified teachers to work and stay in teaching careers

9.2. Community Based Reforms

9.2.1. Dryfoo's model of full service schools

9.2.1.1. This model focuses on meeting the students' and their families' educational, physical, psychological, and social needs that's collaborated between school and community services.

9.2.1.2. In this model - Schools service as community centers within neighborhoods that stay open extended hours.

9.2.1.3. Community centers provide - 1) Adult education 2) Health clinics 3) Recreation facilities 4) After-school programs 5) Mental health services 6) Drug and alcohol programs 7) Job placement programs & training programs 8) Tutoring services

9.2.1.4. This model targets at-risk neighborhoods and aims to prevent problems as well as support them.

9.2.2. Harlem Children's Zone

9.2.2.1. Geoffrey Canada's approach was a little different than others. He wanted to leave the children in their communities while simultaneously changing the kids and the neighborhood.

9.2.2.2. His Thoughts - *When you have kids in the community in high quality programs, you being to change the cultural context of the neighborhood *He felt white parents typically spent more time educating their kids when their young and black parents didn't, which put them behind in school *If kids in at risk neighborhoods are surrounded by people talking about college then you'll naturally think about college *Wanted to infect positivity into the neighborhood of Harlem

9.2.2.3. How does his program help?

9.2.2.3.1. * Provides programs for parents in Harlem before their children are even born in order to infuse knowledge that middle class parents know they need to do for their infants.

9.2.2.3.2. Baby College

9.2.2.3.3. Geoffrey Canada's formula along with an extended school day and tutoring for at-risk kids helped in middle school improve their state test results in math and reading.