Foundations of Education

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Foundations of Education by Mind Map: Foundations of Education

1. Politics of Education

1.1. 4 Purposes of Education

1.2. Intellectual Purpose-to teach basic cognitive skills such as reading, writing, and mathematics.

1.3. Social Purpose- to help solve social problems and to work as one of many institutions, such as family and church to ensure social cohesion; and to socialize children into various roles of society.

1.3.1. Political Purpose- to inculcate allegiance to the existing political order to prepare citizens who participate in this particular order.

1.3.2. Economic Purpose-to prepare students for their later occupational roles and to select, train, and allocate individuals into the division of labor.

1.4. Differing Perspectives

1.5. The Role of the School

1.5.1. The Conservative Perspective- sees the role of the school as providing the necessary education training to ensure that the most talented and hardworking individuals receive the tools necessary to maximize economic and social productivity, and views the role of the school as essential to both economic productivity and social stability.

1.5.1.1. Explanations of Unequal Performance

1.5.1.2. The Liberal Perspective- argues that individual students or groups of students begin school with different life chances and therefore some groups have significantly more advantages than others.

1.5.1.3. Definition of Education Problems

1.5.1.3.1. The Radical Perspective- defining curriculum and teaching methods should be multicultural, antiracist, antisexist, anticlassist, antihomophobic,, enabling teachers to and students to understand social and economical problmes and to see potential solutions. Teachers and students having greater voices in making decisions and not relying on reform alone to solve educational problems.

2. History Of U.S. Education

2.1. I believe that the education for women and African Americans has had the most influence on education. Oberlin Collegiate Institute, located in Ohio, welcomed women and African Americans in 1833. This movement spread throughout the entire west, leading many major universities and colleges to open their doors. Although gender and racial issues continued to be a problem throughout the 20th century, these radical movements opened the doors for a revolution that started education for women and African Americans all over the United States.

2.2. The democratic-liberals schools believed in education for all, and opportunities should be afforded to everyone. Over history, liberal reformers have tried to enrich educational opportunities to the world. They also deterred any conservative views set aside for only the privileged. The democratic-liberals remained optimistic on the interpretations of U.S. education but the country's schools are flawed. This caused an ongoing conflict of any opportunities with compromise being the only solution. The U.S. Educational System, as a whole, must move closer to each other without dramatic sacrifices being made if it ever wants to work properly.

3. The Sociology of Education

3.1. Functionalism is a society that heavily emphasizes the interdependence of a social system. If you could imagine a machine that would only function based on the other parts all working together then can understand functionalism. Functionality requires other energy parts to make society work properly. If the society is functioning correctly, students will then be demonstrations of appropriate values. These students will then be sorted and picked among the other students based on their abilities, allowing functionalism to thrive in it's truest form.

3.2. Conflict theories are based on the ideas of sociologists that believe shared values are just a part of an educational society. Instead of collective agreements-force, cooptation, and manipulation are required. A mix of political, economic, cultural, and military power, help hold the society together.

3.3. Interactionalism is the critiques of functionalism and conflict theory. Some sociologists believe that functionality and the conflict theory can be vague at times, so through observation they can demonstrate higher levels of understanding.

3.4. Five Most Impacting Effects on Education

3.4.1. 1. Teacher Behavior- The way a teacher portrays themselves makes a vital impact on their students. Being a strong role model, and encouraging your students, has proven to play a major factor in a person's structure and ability to use their full potential.

3.4.1.1. 2. Tracking- By placing a student in a high tracked school, they are going to receive better work environments, teachers, and more extracurriculars. The students on the lower tracks have more severe and unfortunate experiences. These conditions can lead that student to also face alienation, which can in turn lead to violence. It is so important to have equal education for all.

3.4.1.2. 3. Inside The Schools- Pros and cons can be produced from larger and smaller schools, however the content of what is being taught is most important. Different curriculums are being offered at every school, and these curriculums have a direct effect on whether a student may want to continue their education.

3.4.1.3. 4. Peer Groups And Alienation- The types of relationships a person develops in high school can be life sustaining. A child that is constantly subject to criticisms and alienations, often times turn to violence. The types of subcultures created for students are so important in order to make a reproductive society. Schools that incorporate culture, tradition, and practice of restraints, can mold a student to feel more accepted for who they are.

3.4.1.3.1. 5. Employment- By 1986 54% of 8 million college graduates were able to land jobs in their desired field. Having a college education will not only make you smarter, but it has proven to lead to greater job opportunities.

4. Philosophy of Education

4.1. Pragmatism

4.2. Generic Notions- Influenced by evolution and 18th century beliefs of progress, pragmatism strives for a better type of society through the use of education. Students could learn through experimenting and the use of hands on learning.

4.3. Goal of Education- To maintain a functional democratic society, the role of a school must be to demonstrate proper social order. A school does this by implementing, challenging, and restructuring ideas of their school. This lead to John Dewey's most important goal of education: growth. This growth would develop individuals to their fullest potentials coexisting in good societies.

4.4. Key Researchers- George Sanders Pierce (1839-1914) William James (1842-1910) John Dewey (1859-1952)

4.5. Role of a teacher- The teachers role in a progressive setting is not of authority but more in a peripheral position. As a person who encourages, offers students suggestions, and helps their students plan activities. The teacher is still responsible for the planning of their curriculum, and also provides disciplinary procedures.

4.6. Methods of Instruction- Methods for instruction at a progressive school include problem solving and use of the inquiry method. These can be performed individually or in a group setting.

5. Schools As Organizations

5.1. Major Stakeholders

5.1.1. Representative on State School Board: Ella B. Bell (District 5)

5.1.1.1. Local Superintendant: Robby Parker

5.1.1.1.1. Local Board Members: Ranae Bartlett, Connie Cox Spears, Tim Holtcamp, David Hergenroeder, Luis Javier Ferrer

5.2. Alabama Senators- Senior Richard Shelby/ Junior Doug Jones

5.2.1. House of Representatives: Mo Brooks (District 5)

5.2.1.1. State Superintendent: Michael Sentance

5.3. Elements of Change within School Processes and School Cultures

5.3.1. *Definite Population *Clearly Defined Political Structures *Represent Social Relationships *Pervaded by "We Feelings" *Uniquely defined Cultures

5.3.2. *Conflict Necessary For Change *New Learned Behaviors *Team Building Throughout Schools *Processes and Content Interrelated

6. Curriculum, Pedagogy, and the Transmission of Knowledge

6.1. The Social Efficiency Curriculum- The Curriculum that is the majority of the United States uses, focuses on the interests of professional educators In my opinion, this is the most important. Educators use their own knowledge and experience to evolve and better each curriculum through first hand experiences. there is no better way.

6.2. Two Forms of Teaching:

6.3. Mimetic- Gives a central place to the transmission of factual and procedural knowledge from one person to another.

6.4. Transformative- A qualitative change, much like metamorphosis with possession of knowledge.

7. Equality of Opportunity and Educational Outcomes

7.1. Class- Financial ability is a huge factor in a student's career. The longer a person attends school, the more financial resources they will need.

7.2. Race- Separation of race and class is undeniable. Minority Students receive fewer educational opportunities than white students.

7.2.1. Gender- Even though men dominated the educational world, in today's society it is women who come out on top, even having higher reading levels and proficiency over males.

7.2.2. Coleman Study 1982

7.2.3. *Differences to school make a difference *Private Schools demand more from students compared to public schools

8. Explanations of Educational Inequality

8.1. Cultural Differences- Working class and nonwhite students resisting the dominant culture of the schools. Students reject white middle class culture and leave behind academic success, and completely oppose schooling all together.

8.1.1. John Ogbu Theory- Argues African American students do less well because they adapt to their oppressed position in society by basically creating "racial suicide." For example, having to submit to standard English to adhere with educational equalities instead of maintaining their "Black English" dialect.

8.2. Four School Centered Explanations for Educational Inequality

8.2.1. 1.) Different Instructional methods being taught.

8.2.2. 2.) Inequalities in school processes.

8.2.3. 3.) Initiative not being shown through each individual student.

8.2.4. 4.) Race, cultural, or class differences in life before entering school.

9. Educational Reform And School Improvement

9.1. * Charter Schools- Public Schools free from regulations applied to traditional public schools, however they are accountable for student performance. Charter is the schools mission, program, goals, student methods of assessment, and ways to measure success.

9.2. Tuition Vouchers- Provides low income parents with the same choices as middle class parents, and better learning environments for low income students. Urban public school standards must show improvement or be forced to close- resulting in higher achievement.