My Foundations of Education

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My Foundations of Education by Mind Map: My Foundations of Education

1. Politics of Education Ch. 2

1.1. Purposes of education: intellectual, political, social, & economic

1.1.1. a) The liberal perspective of the role of the school is that it provide necessary education to ensure that all students are taught equally.

1.1.2. b) The liberal perspective of the explanation of unequal performance is that some students begin their education in different walks of life, therefore, they have unequal opportunity.

1.1.3. c) The liberal perspective of the definition of educational problems says that 1. schools often limit the life chances of those in poor socioeconomic situations or minorities. 2. Schools focus too much on the disciplinary side of education. 3. There is too much emphasis places on socioeconomic standing. 4. Traditional curriculum focuses on specific groups of people, leaving out those from diverse backgrounds.

2. History of Education Ch. 3

2.1. Horace Mann had an incredible impact on the reform of education in the 1800s. Mann used his own experiences to fuel his passion for the improvement of education when he became the Secretary to the Massachusetts Board of Education. In 1848 Mann resigned from the board and became the president of Atioch College. Mann did many wonderful things for education in his lifetime and his known as the "Father of American Education".

2.1.1. In the 1980s, Diane Ravitch moved her stance on education to a more conservative position. Using a series of writings she argued that using education to solve social problems has not solved any social problems, but has led to a greater education system.

3. Sociological Perspectives Ch. 4

3.1. Fundamental sociologists view society as being a type of machine that has different parts, which work together to create something. Many sociologists believe that is is necessary for education, in the fundamentalist view, to create structures, programs, and curricula that will further society as a whole.

3.1.1. However, not all sociologists see that society should be held together by shared values as the fundamentalists do. Conflict sociologists see that in the education system there are classes of people. The text explains that the conflict perspective sees the school as somewhat of a battlefield.

3.1.1.1. The interactional theories concerning education take a stance on both the fundamentalist approach as well as the conflict approach. This aspect helps one understand the big picture of education. Interactionalists believe that it is what is not being questioned that is the true underlying problem.

4. Philosophy of Education Ch. 5

4.1. Pragmatism is the philosophy of education that is centered around the understanding that one should create or find a process that works as a way to achieve the ending that is desired. Many of the key researchers who are considered pragmatists include George Sanders Peirce, Williams James, John Dewey, John Locke, Jean-Jaques Rousseau, and Frances Bacon. However, the first three are considered that founders of the thought.

4.1.1. Generic Notions of Dewey's pragmatism note that his form of pragmatism was influenced by both the theory of evolution as well as by the belief in progress developed in the eighteenth century. Dewey saw the use of pragmatism leading to better education, thus creating a better society. Dewey had very progressive ideas of education, which included the need to allow students freedom to consider what it is that they want to learn.

4.1.1.1. Dewey was an advocate for the idea that school should be a place for development both as a student as well as a person in society. To him, education was a large part of social progress, and mainly for children to grow which would lead to more growth.

4.1.1.1.1. In the pragmatistic philosophy of education it is believed that the educator in the classroom is not just the source from which ideas and knowledge come from, but the teacher is a facilitator and instructor to the pupils. Teachers do much more than just provide information. They are responsible for the creation of curriculum, for carrying out discipline, for encouraging, for answering questions, and much more.

5. School as Organizations Ch. 6

5.1. The Dekalb County school district stakeholders include Jason Barnett as the state superintendent, Jeff Williams as a Chairman, Randy Peppers as Vice Chairman, Matt Sharp as a member of the board, Mark Richards as a member of the board, and Robert Elliott as a member of the board. The Alabama State Superintendent Interim is Ed Richardson. Dee O. Fowler is the Chief of Staff. Kay Ivey is the President of the State School Board in Alabama and members include Jackie Ziegler, Ed Richardson, Betty Peters, Stephanie Bell, Yvette E. Richardson, Ella Bell, Cynthia McCarty, Jeffery Newman, and Mary Hunter.

6. Curriculum and Pedagogy Ch. 7

6.1. The curriculum theory that I advocate the most is the developmentalist curriculum. While I do feel that students should be lead to reform society for the betterment of the future, I also believe that the primary goal is to teach students in the ways that they need to be taught. Developmentalist curriculum puts great focus on the students needs rather than the needs of society. Developmentalist curriculum hopes to bring life experience to the learner and create a passion in them for education.

6.1.1. The two traditions of teaching that are the most dominant are the mimetic tradition and the transformative tradition. Mimetic stems from the Greek word mimesis, which is where the word mimic comes from. The tradition of mimesis focuses mainly on the method of teaching. It is the conception of knowledge. Mimetic knowledge is able to be reproduced, so mimetic tradition is not solely book learning or physical representations of learning. It is both of these things. Transformative tradition in teaching is a transformation in the learner in some way.

7. Equality of Opportunity Ch. 8

7.1. Class, race, and gender all have a clear affect on the outcome of education all over the U.S., which is extremely unfortunate. Studies have shown that the upper and middle classes have more opportunities in education, and parents of students who come from the upper and middle classes are more expected to do well in school. underclass and working class families tend to have less opportunity and are not expected to make as many strides in education. Race has shown to have an affect on educational outcomes as well. 9.3% of African American students and 17.6% of Hispanic students are likely to dropout of school. Gender is becoming less and less of a problem in educational outcomes, however. While females are still expected to do better in school than males, gender equality in education in becoming less of a problem.

7.1.1. The two responses to The Coleman Study in 1982 noted in the textbook are: 1. In response to High School Achievement it was decided that Coleman's original thought that there was a great difference between Catholic schools and public schools was not quite as significant as the study may have assumed. According to the text Catholic private schools were thought to be superior to public schools, which is some cases is true, but the difference is not as significant. 2. In response to Equality of Educational Opportunity researchers confirmed Coleman's data regarding the socioeconomic status of students and their class/race. The school's socioeconomic composition and racial composition has a bugger effect on the student's education than the individual race and class.

8. Educational Inequality Ch. 9

8.1. Cultural difference theory 1. That African American students do poorly in school because of the position that they hold in education, which is a position of oppression. Cultural difference theory 2. That working-class and nonwhite individuals resist the culture that is the most dominant in their school. Therefore, the dropout rate is higher because of that resistance.

8.1.1. The first school-centered explanation for educational inequality is the school financing explanation. Public schools are financed through multiple sources, but the most financial support comes from state and local taxes. Therefore schools located in low socioeconomic areas have less money coming in. Between-school differences are a second explanation. A high school in a poor urban community typically has overfilled classes, low counselor resources, and very little access to technology. Within-school differences are another explanation. There is often an issue of students receiving different types of education within one school system. So higher level students may get bored, while lower level students can't keep up. Finally, the fourth explanation pertains to gender. Feminists think that schools tend to limit expectations of females in school, giving them less opportunities .

9. Educational Reform Ch. 10

9.1. School based reforms: 1. School-business partnerships have reshaped traditional schooling in the sense that businesses will "adopt" a school and financially support them by giving scholarships for poor students. 2. Privatization is a school reform that really began in the 90s. Privatization is when for-profit companies create organizations that wipe out the traditional district schooling.

9.1.1. Full service and community schools are a form of community reform in education. Full service schools are focused on giving to the students and their families in various ways, whether through physical needs, psychological needs, social needs, etc. They zone in on communities that are considers at risk and help them reach goals they might not reach otherwise. Harlem children's zone is a form of reform developed by Geoffrey Canada that benefits students by creating a learning community for them early in life so that children who live in Harlem can be given quality early childhood education, thus making a positive impact on the society itself.