Foundations of Education

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Foundations of Education by Mind Map: Foundations of Education

1. Politics of Education

1.1. Four Purposes of Education

1.1.1. Intellectual Purposes: is to teach basic cognitive skills and help students acquire higher-order thinking skills.

1.1.2. Political Purposes: are to inculcate allegiance to the existing political order and to prepare children who will participate in this political order.

1.1.3. Social Purposes: to help solve social problems, social cohesion, and to socialize children into the various roles, behaviors, and values of the society.

1.1.4. Economic Purposes: to prepare students for their later occupational roles and to select, train, and allocate individuals into the division of labor.

1.2. The Role of the School

1.2.1. The Liberal Perspective: Believe in the equality of opportunity and that all students have an equal opportunity to succeed in society. This perspective sees the needs of education as balancing the needs of society. It gives all citizens a fair and equal chance opportunity for economic wealth, political power, and social status.

1.3. Explanations of Unequal Educational Performance

1.3.1. Conservative Perspective believe that individuals rise and fall on their own intelligence,hard work, and initiative. They believe achievement is based on hard work and sacrafice.

1.4. Definition of Educational Problems

1.4.1. The radical perspective thinks the educational system has failed the poor, minorities, and women through classist, racist, sexist, and homophobic policies.

1.4.2. The radical perspective think schools have stifled critical understanding of the problems of American Society through a curriculum and teaching practices that promote conformity.

1.4.3. The radical perspective also believes the traditional curriculum is classist, racist, sexist, and homophobic and leaves out the cultures, histories, and voice of the oppressed.

2. History of U.S. Education

2.1. The Rise of the Common School: A reform by Horace Mann, who was a successful lawyer and left his job for the state board of education. He lived in Massachusettes. He worked on a farm growing up and only got to go to school 10 weeks a year. Other children went to private schools and had better educations. The public school was paid for by taxes and teachers received little pay so most children did not attend school. Those children were then caught stealing, destroying property, and setting fires. Mann believes more children in school would keep them out of trouble and allow them and education. Mann became the state supervisor of the education and allowed people to vote for taxes to go towards school, teacher salaries, and require special training schools for teachers. Mann had the school years attended 6 months and all teachers to have special training, taxes pay for school, and more. In 1850, many states started using Mann ideas, but still did not allow females to attend and African Americans were sent to low-income schools. Later schools changed that and everyone was accepted. I believe this reform mad the biggest impact for everyone. It is fair that all people get to attend and earn an education.

2.2. Different Historical Interpretations: revolves around the tension between the social and intellectual functions of schooling. U.S. education has expanded to serve more students for longer periods of time than any other system in the world. It first occurred by extending primary school to all through compulsory education laws during the Common School Era. Second, by extending postsecondary education to the largest number of high school graduates in the world by the 1990s. Historians and sociologists of education disagree about whether this pattern of increased access means a pattern of educational success.

3. Educational Reform

3.1. Describe two school-based reforms (school-based, school-business partnerships, privatization, school-to-work programs, teacher education or teacher quality)

3.1.1. School Based Partnership- It was during the 1980's that business leaders became unceasingly concerned that the nations schools were not producing the type of graduates needed for a type of revitalization for the U.S. economy. That is when many school business partnerships were formed. The Boston Compact is an example of that.

3.1.2. Privatization- During the 1990's private education companies slowly increased and became involved in public education in many of ways. They were involved in profit companies, such as Edison Companies, who took over the failing schools and districts.

3.2. Describe at least two societal, economic, community, or political reforms that impact education.

3.2.1. State Intervention: There are 23 states that have adopted this practice. If a school system is not meeting the requirements of the state, then the state will takeover the school, but this is a last resort for a situation.

3.2.2. Harlem's Children Zone: This is a program in Canada for parents to send their children to. It provides early childhood education for minority and low-income students.

4. Philosophy of Education

4.1. Existentialism: the outside world has no inherent meaning of human existence. Students choose how much they learn. In education, it emphasizes focus on self-direction and self actualization.

4.1.1. Generic Notions: People must create themselves and their own meaning. People need to make sense of the chaos they encounter. Choices are up to the individual.

4.1.2. Key Researchers: Existentialism can be traced back to the Bible, but philosopher Soren Kierkegaard included more in education. Jean Paul Sartre, Martin Buber, Karl Jaspers, and Martin Heidegger also were philosopher with him on existentialism.

4.1.3. Goal of Education: Existentialists believe that education should focus on the needs of individuals, both cognitively and effectively. They believe education should stress individuality. It should include rational and non rational discussion about the world. They see education as an activity liberating the individual from a chaotic, absurd world.

4.1.4. Role of Teacher: emphasizes individual choice and there is not a common way of viewing the world. Teachers should understand their own lived worlds, as well as that of their students in order to help them understand and achieve their best lived world.

4.1.5. Method of Instruction: Teachers should stress individual freedom. Empower students to make choices about what they will learn in school. It is up to the teacher to learn each child's learning style and help the students understand the world through posing questions, generic activities, and working together.

4.1.6. Curriculum: Stresses mostly arts and literature. It does not have much emphasize on science and math. It deals with human existence and relations between people, the tragic side of human life as well as the happy. It tries to awaken modern individuals to the dangers of being swallowed up by the megalopolis and runway technology.

5. Schools as Organization

5.1. Federal Alabama State Senators: Richard Shelby Doug Jones

5.2. House of Representative:Bradley Byrne, Martha Roby, Mike Rogers, Robert Aderholt, Mo Brooks, Gary Palmer, Terri Sewell

5.3. State Superintendent: Micheal Sentance

5.4. Representative on state school board: Kay Ivey- President, Jackie Zeigler-District 01, Ed Richardson-Secretary and Executive Officer, Betty Peters-District 02,Stephanie Bell-Vice President, District 03,Yvette M. Richardson, Ed.D.-District 04, Ella B. Bell-District 05, Cynthia Sanders McCarty, Ph.D.-President Pro Tem, District 06, Jeffrey Newman-District 07,Mary Scott Hunter-District 08

5.5. Local Superintendent: Jimmy Shaw

5.6. All members on Local School Board: Bill Griffin, District 3,Board President.Laura Hardeman, District 5,Board Vice-President. Vicky Kirkman,District 1. David Howard, District 2. Bill Gullett, District 4. Britton Watson,District 6. Dr. Jimmy Shaw, Superintendent. Connie Wallace,Assistant Superintendent/CSFO

5.7. School Processes and School Cultures: Elements of Change. 1. Conflict in schools will need to surface and be resolved to reconstruct the school. 2. New behaviors between staff and students must change. Building trust and learning better ways of techniques is necessary. 3. Team building among all staff is needed to rebuild relationships and make team decisions in the school. 4. Process and content are related with each other. The way the staff and students go about learning together is important for building up trust.

6. Curriculum & Pedagogy

6.1. Social Efficiency: focuses on developing skills that are needed in society. Social Efficiency does not put much individual focus on the child, but more on the child being able to function in today's society. It is bringing together individual aspects as well as the whole in order for each child to be successful. Teachers should be able to modify the curriculum to fit individual child needs.

6.2. Two dominant tradition ways of Teaching

6.2.1. The Mimetic approach is a child basically being able to recall information learned when asked about it. This approach works best in environment where there is not much change going on and there is a steady pace of learning. Students who benefit from this teaching style usually move on to higher education and positions of leadership.

6.2.2. The Transformative approach talks about how each student is different. This approach is used for cognitive learning theories. Transformative approach does not mainly focus on building knowledge but overall changing the nature and personality of an individual. This approach is included a significant amount throughout the education system, but the education system is made up of both mimetic and transformative.

7. Equality of Opportunity

7.1. Describe how class, race, and gender each impact educational outcomes

7.1.1. Class: Families with higher income usually have higher expectations for their children. They are more likely to help pay to further their education. Families of lower income sometimes expect less because they do not have the financial means to help the child pay for more school.

7.1.2. Race: Children of minority backgrounds have a higher dropout rate and lower reading comprehension level than other students.

7.1.3. Gender: Females are less likely to drop out of school and usually have higher levels of reading comprehension and writing abilities. Men are usually better test takers and do better in math.

7.2. What were the two responses to the Coleman Study from 1982?

7.2.1. Studies were shown that private schools usually provide a better learning experience for students. They most definitely provide a better learning experience for low income families.

7.2.2. The school a student goes to is usually based on their race and socioeconomic background. The racial and socioeconomic composition of a school has a greater effect on student achievement than an individuals race and class.

8. Educational Inequality

8.1. Explain at least two types of cultural differences theory

8.1.1. One cultural theory says that African American students do not excel as much in school because they fall back into their oppressed position in the class and caste structure.

8.1.2. Another cultural difference theory says that working class and non-white students are resisting the dominant culture of the school.They reject the white middle-class culture of academic success and embrace a different, often anti-school culture. Which is opposed to the culture of schooling as it currently exist.

8.2. Describe at least four school-centered (not student-centered) explanations for educational inequality.

8.2.1. 1. Effective School Research- An attempt to explain differences in academic performance among all groups of students in the same school system.

8.2.2. 2. Curriculum and Pedagogy Practices- "School Climates" affect academic performances. Schools in middle-class communities are more likely to have less authoritarian and more student-centered pedagogic practices.

8.2.3. 3. Curriculum and Ability Grouping- The fact that different groups of students in the same schools perform very differently suggest that there may be characteristics that affect these outcomes.

8.2.4. 4. Gender and Schooling- Feminist agree that schooling often limits the educational opportunity and life chances of women in many different areas.

9. The Sociology of Education

9.1. Functionalism: says society is a system of interconnected parts that work together to maintain a state of balance and social equilibrium for the whole. Functionalist view society as a machine , where one part articulates with another to produce the dynamic energy required to make society work.

9.2. Conflict Theory: says society is composed of different parts working together.Society is composed of different groups fighting for power and resources. This perspective sees students against teacher and teachers against administrators all fighting for power. It promotes social inequality through the use of standardized testing and the hidden curricullum.

9.3. Interactional Theory: this perspective focuses on interaction between people. In schools it focuses on interaction in the classroom, playground, and other school venues. Studies show that social interaction in schools affects the development of gender roles. It also shows that the expectation the teachers holds for the student intellectual abilities affects how much they learn.

9.4. Effects of Schooling on Individuals

9.4.1. Knowledge and Attitudes: research shows that students who study in a school of more wealth and discipline learn more than others in lower income schools. It also says students who go to school more gain more knowledge. The time you spend learning is based on the amount of knowledge you will gain.

9.4.2. Employment: People who go to school and graduate with a degree are more likely to be successful in the job industry. There is one things schools do not teach a student and that is work ethic. Students without degree work just as hard as students with degrees. Studies do show that it is important to earn a college degree because you are more likely to make more money.

9.4.3. Inside the School: Students study different curriculum in high school. Research shows that curricular placement is the single biggest determinant of college attendance. Schools of lower income and small facilities lack resources to offer college preparation courses unlike schools with more income and more teachers. I believe the schools have an impact on students outside of high school for their future.

9.4.4. Teacher Behavior: Teachers play many roles in a school system. They are the instructor, disciplinarian, bureaucrat, employer, friend, and even more. Teachers play a big role in how much a student learns. A teacher is encouraging or discouraging to a student. The label teachers put on students impact how much they learn. A teacher plays a major role in a child education.

9.4.5. Gender: In schools boys and girls do not have equal roles. Girls usually start off more mature in high school than boys, but by the end of high school the girls have lower self esteem and lower aspirations than boys. Boys get more good and bad attention than girls do from teachers. Textbooks in schools are more biased against women. They ignore some of women accomplishments and social contributions. I think the way a teacher treats each child affects their learning and self worth.