My Foundations of Education

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My Foundations of Education by Mind Map: My Foundations of Education

1. Schools as Organizations Chapter 6

1.1. Major Stakeholders in Marshall County, Al

1.1.1. Federal Level

1.1.1.1. Senators

1.1.1.1.1. Richard Shelby (senior senator)

1.1.1.1.2. Doug Jones (junior senator)

1.1.1.2. Represenatives

1.1.1.2.1. Robert Aderholt

1.1.2. Local level

1.1.2.1. Senator

1.1.2.1.1. Clay Scofirld

1.1.2.2. Represenative

1.1.2.2.1. Ed Henry

1.1.2.3. State Represenative

1.1.2.3.1. Ed Richardson

1.1.2.4. Representative for School board

1.1.2.4.1. Ed Henry

1.1.2.5. Local Superintendent

1.1.2.5.1. Cindy Wigley

1.1.2.5.2. Alan Garner (Asst. Superintendent)

1.1.2.6. Local School Board

1.1.2.6.1. Cindy Wigley (Superintendent)

1.1.2.6.2. Alan Garner (Asst. Superintendent)

1.1.2.6.3. Terry Kennamer (President)

1.1.2.6.4. Tony Simmons (Vice President)

1.1.2.6.5. Joe Van Bunch (Member)

1.1.2.6.6. Vince Edmonds (Members)

1.1.2.6.7. Mark Rains (Members

1.2. School processes

1.2.1. What to teach

1.2.2. How to teach

1.2.3. How to help

1.2.4. School processes being very powerful

1.3. School Culture

1.3.1. Values and beliefs that a school contains

1.3.2. Every school having their own culture and beleifs

1.3.3. cultures of schools depend upon the politics around the school system

1.3.4. The changing of cultures in a school system is not a simple task

1.3.5. Teachers, administrators, parents, students, and community leaders all have different beliefs and do not come to agreements easily.

2. Poltitics of Education Chapter 2

2.1. 1. Intellectual-to teach basic cognitive skills such as reading, writing, and mathematics

2.2. 2. Political-to inculcate allegiance to the existing political order

2.3. 3. Social-to help solve social problems.

2.4. 4. Economic-to prepare students for their later occupational roles and to select, train, and allocate individuals into the division of labor.

2.5. Conservative Perspective

2.5.1. 1. Role of the school-To teach students basic skills and help prepare them to go out into the workforce and contribute to society, while also allowing people to choose for themselves what is best.

2.5.2. 2. Explanation of unequal education performance-The belief that everyone has the ability to both succeed and fail, but untimely comes down to the failure of said person to work hard enough.

2.5.3. 3. Definition of Educational problems-The idea of government policies and intervention in things like education, have an overall negative effect considering circumstances of problems being left alone that need to be addressed on the individual level.

3. History of U.S. Education Chapter 3

3.1. Reform Movement

3.1.1. I believe that The Rise of the Common School had the most influence on education. This reform happened around 1820 to 1860 after The Industrial Revolution. Causing schools that had been established pre-war were not functioning effectively. Horance Mann of Massachusetts argued for the establishment of the common school, or free publicly funded elementary schools.

3.2. Historical Interpretation

3.2.1. In the 1980's a rise in criticism took place from conservatives due to mediocre goals causing failure in the schools.

4. Sociological Perspectives chapter 4

4.1. 1. Functionalism-begins with a picture of society that stresses the interdependence of the social system

4.2. 2. Conflict Theory-claims that society is in a state of conflict due to competitions of limited resources

4.3. 3. Interactionalism-the relation of school and society are primarily critiques and extensions of the functional and conflict perspectives

4.4. Effects of Schooling

4.4.1. Inside School: Schools being different in size, location, ethnicity backgrounds and more. All schools having teachers on site to help students learn more and succeed

4.4.2. Teacher behavior: Teachers behavior has a huge impact on students and their ability to learn.

4.4.3. Gender: Another way for schools to produce inequalities is through their discrimination in men and women.

4.4.4. Education and mobility: The occupational and social mobility importance and the difference of education a student receives by going to a private or public school.

4.4.5. Employment: Graduating from college will lead to greater job opportunities.

5. Philosophy of Education Chapter 5

5.1. Generic Notions:Action oriented approach that started around the end of the 19th century

5.2. Key Researchers: John Dewey, Sanders Pierce, William James, John Locke, Fraces Bacon, and Jean-Jacques Rousseau

5.3. Goal of Education:The main goal of education is educating each student in the most equal way possible to give society the best possible future.

5.4. Role of Teacher:The purpose of a teacher is to guide a student or leading one in a better direction to help succeed. Meaning giving advice, redirecting, and answering unknown questions.

5.5. Curriculum:Idealist place great importance on the study of classics. Based off the core disciplines, that should also work to incorporate students needs.

5.6. Method of instruction:Based of Dewey's idea that children learn in groups as well as individuals. Teaching that letting go of lectures and mass memorization was for the best.

6. Curriculum and Pedagogy Chapter 7

6.1. This curriculum theory focuses on children's individual wants and needs

6.2. Developmental Curriculum Theory

6.2.1. The curriculum mathes with the students interest and things that hey lie so that they can get some say in what they are wanting to learn about

6.2.2. In this curriculum each students gets an equal opportunity to learn and grow

6.2.3. Encourages creativity

6.2.4. Motivates students

6.2.5. Has a variety of options of how work can be done: alone, small group, or large group

6.2.6. Builds problems solving skills

6.2.7. Teaches children to be independent

6.2.8. Requires high concentration

6.3. Dominant traditions of teaching

6.3.1. Mimetic tradition

6.3.1.1. The purpose of education is to transfer specific knowledge to the students

6.3.1.2. This strategy relies mainly on lectures and presentations

6.3.1.3. Education is a process between the knower and the learner

6.3.1.4. This transfers education and information from one to the other

6.3.2. Transformative tradition

6.3.2.1. Changing students in meaningful ways

6.3.2.1.1. Spiritually

6.3.2.1.2. Emotionally

6.3.2.1.3. Intellectual

6.3.2.1.4. Creativity

6.3.2.2. Always make sure there is consistent communication between teacher and student

6.3.2.3. While using lectures make sure there is teacher/student communication through questions and answers

7. Equality of Opportunity Chapter 8

7.1. Educational Outcomes

7.1.1. Class

7.1.1.1. Directly related to academic achievement

7.1.1.2. Students from upper and middle class families have a greater rate at finishing school

7.1.1.3. Working and lower class families have less expectations in their children in finish ing school

7.1.1.4. Middle and upper class students are more likely to speak English

7.1.1.5. Teachers are known for having favortistim upon upper and middle class students

7.1.1.6. Family income highly related to student success rate

7.1.1.7. Students from working and lower class families have a higher rate of dropping out and resist the school

7.1.1.8. The higher class the student is, the more opportunities one has on colleges

7.1.2. Race

7.1.2.1. Has a direct impact on education

7.1.2.2. Out of White, African-Americans, and Hispanic-Americans what students have the lowest drop out rates

7.1.2.3. Out of White, African-Americans, and Hispanic-Americans white students have the highest SAT scores

7.1.2.4. Out of White, African-Americans, and Hispanic-Americans white students get more scholarship opportunities

7.1.2.5. White students have more and better educational opportunities than minorities

7.1.3. Gender

7.1.3.1. Females have lower drop out rates

7.1.3.2. Females are more likely to have higher reading and writing levels

7.1.3.3. Males are more likely to be better than females in math

7.1.3.4. Males generally score higher on SAT test than females

7.1.3.5. Females are at tenting post secondary institutions than males, but are much more less prestigious

7.1.3.6. Society discriminates against females socially and occupationally

7.2. The Coleman Study 1982

7.2.1. Round #2

7.2.1.1. Disagreed with Coleman that privates Catholic schools did better than public school

7.2.1.2. The differences between catholic and public schools are so small that they commonly see it insignificant

7.2.1.3. Private schools do better for low class students

7.2.1.4. Catholic schools are becoming more and more like public schools

7.2.2. Round #3

7.2.2.1. Agrees with both Coleman studies from 1966 and 1982

7.2.2.2. Race and socioeconomic background are directly related to where a student goes to school

7.2.2.3. School composition has a greater effect on student achievement than race and class commonly does.

7.2.2.4. Race and class predict success

7.2.2.5. Wants to end biases towards white middle-class students

8. Educational Inequality Chapter 9

8.1. Cultural Difference Theories

8.1.1. Ogbu's Theory on Africn American students

8.1.1.1. Generally do worse in school than others

8.1.1.2. Adopt to oppression

8.1.1.3. Families and schools commonly socialize them to accept their inferior lives instead of trying to rise above them

8.1.1.4. Lower educations attainment and performances

8.1.1.5. Feel the need to deny their own cultural backgrounds and fit into the norm to be able to succeed.

8.1.2. Working class and Nonwhite students

8.1.2.1. Resist dominant culture of schools

8.1.2.2. Has an anti-school viewpoint

8.1.2.3. Embraces the working-class culture

8.1.2.4. Denies school and academic success

8.1.2.5. Drops out of school and goes straight into the workforce

8.1.2.6. Does not see school and education as something valuable

8.2. School-Centered Explanations

8.2.1. School financing

8.2.1.1. Large differences in funding affluent and poor districts

8.2.1.2. Public schools are all funded by federal state and local sources

8.2.1.2.1. Majority comes from state and local taxes

8.2.1.2.2. Property taxes are based off the value of the property

8.2.1.2.3. More wealthy communities are able to have more pre--pupt spending than poorer communities

8.2.1.2.4. From table 9.1 page 479

8.2.1.2.5. Not likely that the federal government will intervene with the method of funding

8.2.1.3. Many hope for a better method of funding for schools to create an equal opportunity environment opportunity, but it is unlikely to change anytime soon

8.2.2. Between School Differences Curriculum and Pedagogic Practices

8.2.2.1. Research based on inner-city, lower socioeconomic neighborhoods

8.2.2.2. Bernstein

8.2.2.2.1. Schools in working-class neighborhoods are more likely to have authoritarian and more teacher directed pedagogic practices. They also have social efficiency or vocationally curriculum at secondary level

8.2.2.2.2. Schools in working-class neighborhoods are more likely to have less authoritarian and more student-centered pedagogic practices. Also to have humanistic liberal arts college prep curriculum at secondary

8.2.2.2.3. Schools in the upper class neighborhoods are generally more likely to have private schools. Commonly including authoritarian pedagogic practices and classical-humanstic college prep curriculum at the secondary level

8.2.2.2.4. The level of education a student receives is based on their social class

8.2.2.2.5. Several researchers have come to a conclusion that there are noticeable differences between schools at different social classes with climate curriculum and pedagogic practices

8.2.3. Within School Differences Curriculum and Ability Grouping

8.2.3.1. Students in Elementary schools are placed in groups or classes based on standardized test scores.

8.2.3.2. Secondary school students are divided by ability and curriculum

8.2.3.3. Tracking

8.2.3.3.1. Functionalists believe this to be a good thing. It saves the more challenging classes for the smarter students.

8.2.3.3.2. Conflict theorists believe this is reproducing inequalities

8.2.3.3.3. Teachers seem to think that hertorogeneous groups of students are harder to teacher because the lower students get confused and the higher students get bored

8.2.3.3.4. Unequal education

8.2.3.3.5. Shanker says that the process ultimately tells that the students in lower tracks are not capable of doing work and succeeding

8.2.3.3.6. Oakes says that the lower tracks have a higher chance of having didactic., teacher directed practices and rote learning. The higher tracks would have more dialectical and student centered practices with discussions

8.2.3.3.7. The students receives different curriculum from the same school

8.2.3.3.8. Affects academic achievement, attainment, and independence

8.2.3.3.9. The working class and non white students are generally more likely to be put in low tracks

8.2.4. Gender and Schooling

8.2.4.1. Femenists wants the schools to revise their curricula and pedagogic practices to emphasize caring and connections

8.2.4.2. Woman are more caring and connected than men. Men being more competitive and intellectual

8.2.4.3. School limiting opportunities for women in several different ways

8.2.4.3.1. The curriculum materials show that men and women's roles are often stereotyped and traditional

8.2.4.3.2. Curriculum often silences women's by omitting women's history and lives

8.2.4.3.3. Hidden curriculum reinforces gender roles and expectations

8.2.4.3.4. Males are commonly dominate in classrooms

8.2.4.3.5. Males generally receive ore attention from teachers

8.2.4.3.6. Teachers usually except less out of females

8.2.4.3.7. Organizations of schools often can limit opportunities and life chances for women

8.2.4.4. Majority of elementary teachers are commonly female and majority of secondary teachers are commonly male

8.2.4.5. The gender gap difference in achievement has dereased significantly, with the females actually advancing males in almost all academic levels and also having higher graduation levels

9. Educational Reform Chapter 10

9.1. School based reforms

9.1.1. Privatization

9.1.1.1. Private education companies become increasingly involved in public education in the 1990s

9.1.1.2. Profit companies took over schools and districts that were failing

9.1.1.3. School districts in Phiadelphia, New Orleans, and other's have replaced traditional with schools operated by a variety of providers.

9.1.1.3.1. traditional district schools

9.1.1.3.2. Charter Schools

9.1.1.3.3. Schools operated by for-profit Education Management organizations

9.1.1.4. Success of profit companies taking over has yet to be determined

9.1.1.5. Success for schools with a variety of providers has been mixed.

9.1.2. Teacher Quality

9.1.2.1. Urban schools generally have more unqualified teachers

9.1.2.2. Out of field teaching is a big issue in education

9.1.2.2.1. Out of field teaching-a teacher that does not teach what they were trained in or went to school for.

9.1.2.2.2. Urban schools commonly have more out of field teachers

9.1.2.2.3. Often timed can lead students to high drop out rates within the first 5 years of that out of field teaching

9.1.2.2.4. Teachers being replaced at a fast pace rate

9.1.2.3. In secondary schools, about a fifth of the classes are being taught by teachers who are commonly not qualified to teach that subject

9.1.2.4. Tenure and seniority based transfers and layoff provisions prevents schools form improving their teacher quality

9.2. Societal, Community, Economic, and Political Reforms

9.2.1. School Finance Reforms

9.2.1.1. New Jersey

9.2.1.1.1. 1970 Robinson vs. Cahill was filed. Talked of discrimination against funding for some school districts which was causing students to get unequal education

9.2.1.1.2. 1973 program was still not fully funded

9.2.1.1.3. 1980 more evidence was found on the inequality of education in urban areas.

9.2.1.1.4. 1990 The court ruled that more funding was needed for schools in poorer communities. Funding was equalized between urban and suburban schools

9.2.1.1.5. 1998 supplemental Abbot programs were implemented

9.2.1.1.6. 2009 Abbot was eliminated and replaced with SFRA. SFRA was a implemented formula to have funding for all districts based on student needs.

9.2.1.2. New York

9.2.1.2.1. 1993 Begining of the battle for equal education

9.2.1.2.2. Asked the state to provide a type of education that prepares students to participate in society

9.2.1.2.3. The state was ordered to provide public schools with additional funding

9.2.2. Connecting School, Community, and Social Reforms

9.2.2.1. Necessary to reduce achievement gap

9.2.2.2. Successful school reform

9.2.2.2.1. Leadership as the driver for change

9.2.2.2.2. Parent community ties

9.2.2.2.3. Professional capacity

9.2.2.2.4. Student centered learning climate

9.2.2.2.5. Instructional guidance

9.2.2.3. Highly need in poverty schools, but poverty schools would be the hardest to implement on

9.2.2.4. Our education system works best for students with a higher social status

9.2.2.5. Elements of reform needed to change our schools from linda Daring -Hammoind

9.2.2.5.1. Intelligent, reciprocal accountability systems

9.2.2.5.2. Meaningful learning goals

9.2.2.5.3. Strong professional standards and support

9.2.2.5.4. Equitable and adequate resources

9.2.2.5.5. School organizations for student teacher leaning

9.2.2.5.6. Basic needs for all students provided