Conceptions, Philosophies and Designs of Curriculum

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Conceptions, Philosophies and Designs of Curriculum by Mind Map: Conceptions, Philosophies and Designs of Curriculum

1. Types of Classroom Assessment

1.1. Pre-assessment

1.1.1. Ascertain student's knowledge

1.2. Formative Assessment

1.2.1. Provide feedback

1.3. Summative Assessment

1.3.1. Documentation

2. Encouraged by the work and writings of Descartes, Kant, F. Hegel and, Royce

3. Character development and self-realization are important aims of an idealistic education

4. Philosophies of Curriculum

4.1. Idealism

4.1.1. Opposing Specialization

4.1.2. Curriculum is a vehicle by which students are taught to conceptualize, to develop thinking skills and to reach self-actualization. (Hill, 1994)

4.2. Realism

4.2.1. Facts and information about the external world are of great importance in a realistic education.

4.2.2. Performance and competency based learning - which are concerned with measurable ends - are all supported by and applied in a realistic education.

4.3. Pragmatism

4.3.1. Pragmatic education aims at the development of both the psychological and the sociological aspects of the individual.

4.3.2. Their methods are flexible and easily adapted to different subject areas and grade levels, and to individual students differences.

4.3.3. curriculum is composed of both process and content, but it is not fixed or an end in itself

4.4. Pragmaticism

4.4.1. Based on the work of Peirce

4.4.2. A method for clarifying ideas

5. Philosophical Bases

5.1. Perrenialism

5.1.1. Focus on the Past

5.1.2. Cultivate the Intellect

5.1.3. Classical Subjects

5.2. Essentialism

5.2.1. Intellectual Growth

5.2.2. Essential Skills (Three R's & Arithmetic)

5.2.3. Teacher is the authority in their field

5.3. Progressivism

5.3.1. Promoting democratic, social living

5.3.2. Focus on growth and development

5.3.3. Teacher is a guide

5.3.4. Based on Student Interests

5.4. Reconstructionsim

5.4.1. To improve and reconstruct society

5.4.2. Teacher as agent of change

5.4.3. Skills and topic used to address societal problems

6. Guiding Factors

6.1. Ontology: What is Real?

6.2. Epistemology: What is True?

6.3. Axiology: What is Good(valuable)?

7. Assessment

7.1. Traditional Models

7.1.1. Social Efficiency Scientific management of schools like factories Utilitatrian precise standards curriculum differentiated based on predicted social roles

7.1.2. Associationist and Behaviorist Learning IQ is Innate and fixed stimulus response associations Learning tightly sequenced and hierarchical test-teach-test

7.1.3. Scientific Measurement IQ tests to sort pupils Objective Tests to measure achievement

7.2. Progressive Models

7.2.1. Focus on authentic learning, not feigning competence

7.2.2. Dynamic and Ongoing, more formative

7.2.3. Embracing prior knowledge

7.2.4. Use of feedback

7.2.5. Making knowledge transferable

7.2.6. Using explicit criteria

7.2.7. Use of self-assessment

7.3. High Quality Assessment

8. High Quality Assessment

8.1. Selecting appropriate methods

8.1.1. Selected response (multiple choice, fill in the blank

8.1.2. Constructed response (essays, products and performance)

8.1.3. Teacher observation (formal and informal)

8.1.4. Student self assessment (self report inventories and and evaluations)

8.2. Clear and appropriate learning targets

8.2.1. Transparancy

8.3. Validity

8.3.1. Clear expectations

8.3.2. Increasing student samples

8.3.3. Conferencing with colleagues

8.4. Reliability

8.5. Practical and efficient

8.6. Positive Consequences

8.6.1. Increasing Motivation Relevance Open Ended Meaningful and Authentic Emphasize Progress

8.6.2. Decreasing motivation public display of performance Not true for Bart, he loves to get up on stage or on the youtubes Artificial or abstract Summative and closed-ended Emphasize the product

8.7. Fairness

8.7.1. Knowable targets

8.7.2. Unbiased expectations

8.7.3. Equal opportunities to learn

8.8. Alignment

9. it was teachers who held beliefs more consistent with traditional principles of scientific measurement (Shepard, 20xx)

10. References: Al Mousa, N. (2013). An examination of cad use in two interior design programs from the perspectives of curriculum and instructors, pp. 21-37 (Master’s Thesis). EdCan Network/Le Reseau Edcan (2014, January 30) A Teacher's P.O.V. on Starting Inquiry-based Learning in the Classroom. [Video File] Retrieved from A Teacher's P.O.V. on Starting Inquiry-based Learning in the Classroom EdCan Network/Le Reseau Edcan (2011, August 31) John Ralston Saul: Where is the Standardized Testing Trend Taking Us? [Video File] Retrieved from Hayes, D. (2003) Making learning an effect of schooling: aligning curriculum, assessment and pedagogy, Discourse: studies in the cultural politics of education, 24(2), 225-245 Hill, A. M. (1994). Perspectives on philosophical shifts in vocational education: From realism to pragmatism and reconstructionism. Journal of Vocational and Technical Education, 10(2), 37-45. McMillan, J. H. (2014). Classroom assessment: Principles and practice for effective standards-based instruction (6th ed., pp. 1-20, 57-64,74-88). Boston, MA: Pearson. Ornstein, A. C. (1990/1991). Philosophy as a basis for curriculum decisions. The High School Journal, 74, 102-109. Ornstein, A. C., & Hunkins, F. P. (2013). Curriculum: Foundations, principles, and issues (6th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson. Read Chapter 6, pp. 149-173. Robinson, K [Ted Talks] (2013, May 10) How to Escape Education’s Death Valley. [Video File] Retrieved from Schiro, M. S. (2013). Introduction to the curriculum ideologies. In M. S. Schiro, Curriculum theory: Conflicting visions and enduring concerns (2nd ed., pp. 1-13). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Shepard, L. A. (2000). The role of assessment in a learning culture. Educational Researcher, 29(7), 4-14. doi:10.3102/0013189X029007004 Sowell, E. J. (2005). Curriculum: An integrative introduction (3rd ed., pp. 52-54, 55-61, 81-85,103-106). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

11. Instructional Decision Making

11.1. Before Instruction

11.1.1. Needed to set learning goals

11.2. During Instruction

11.2.1. Needed to adjust the delivery of lessons

11.3. After Instruction

11.3.1. Reflect on process to improve instruction

12. Curriculum Design

12.1. Curriculum Sources:

12.1.1. Science Problem Solving Focus Emphasizes How To Learn Strengths Weaknesses Opportunities Threats

12.1.2. Society Socialization of Students Serves interests of society Political Views Conservatives want schools to instill traditional values Liberals want schools to make students effective professionals or workers Radicals want schools to accept interests and knowledge of underrepresented groups

12.1.3. Moral Doctrine Relationship between knowledge and spirituality Title Industry Geography Business Size Spirituality fosters mindfulness, attentiveness, awareness of the outside world and self-awareness - Moffett Ask questions about nature of world, purpose of life, and what it means to be human and knowledgeable

12.1.4. Knowledge Teaching valued knowledge stimulates the mind of learners Particular structure and particular method by which scholars extend boundaries

12.1.5. The Learner Focus on how minds create meaning Learning activities facilitate perceiving, thinking, and learning

12.2. Horizontal vs Vertical

12.2.1. Horizontal Blends curriculum elements at same level

12.2.2. Vertical Sequencing curriculum elements

12.3. Dimension Considerations

12.3.1. Scope Breadth and depth of content All content, topics, learning experiences, and organizing threads compromising the educational plan (Tyler) Consider learning's cognitive, affective, and psychomotor domains

12.3.2. Sequence Curriculum should foster cumulative and continuous learning Based on psychological principles or content and experiences

12.3.3. Continuity Vertical repetition of concepts Important concepts are revisited to ensure student understanding

12.3.4. Integration Interdisciplinary curriculum Emphasizes horizontal relationship of topics from all knowledge domains Brings into close relationship the concepts, skills, values that constitute a curriculum so that the elements are mutually reinforcing for learners (Goodland & Su, 1992)

12.3.5. Articulation Vertical Sequencing from one grade to the next Horizontal Connecting simultaneous elements

12.3.6. Balance Appropriate weight to each aspect of design

12.4. 3 Basic Designs

12.4.1. Subject-Centred Designs Subject Designs Best Known - Textbook treatment and teachers as subject specialists Classes involve lecturing, direct instruction, recitation, and large-group discussions. Organized according to how essential knowledge has developed in subject areas. Broad Field Designs Interdisciplinary design Sweeping understanding of all subject areas Integrate content that fits together naturally Discipline Designs Emphasizes separate subject disciplines Students learn in a way that mimics the way scholars study their fields. Encourages students to see a discipline's logic or structure Correlation Designs Midway between separate subjects and total content integration Identifies ways that subjects can be related, but maintain separate subjects. Organized with reference to broad themes, problems or units Process Designs Stress learning general procedures applicable to all disciplines Student as meaning maker Intellectual thinking recognizes the role of attitude and affect in everyday cognition and the importance of developed patterns of behavior (Ritchhart)

12.4.2. Learner-Centred Designs Child-centred Designs Based on students' lives, needs, and interests Individuals construct bodies of knowledge from a foundation of simple ideas derived from their experiences (Locke) Emphasis of child replaces emphasis on subject matter Experience-centred Designs Teachers create stimulating learning environment that students explore in order to come into contact with knowledge and observe others' learning and actions Celebrates students' freedom to choose Emphasizes the learner's interests, creativity, and self-direction Romantic/Radical Deigns Teachers work to separate divide between "haves" and "have nots" Teachers as "awareness makers" Education should enlighten the masses about their oppression, prompt them to feel dissatisfied with their condition, and give them the competencies necessary for correcting identified inequities (Freire) Humanistic Designs Self-actualization Environment that encourages genuineness, empathy, and respect for self and others Collaborative and multidisciplinary

12.4.3. Problem-Centred Designs Life Situations Focus on problem solving procedures Activities that are related to life Relevance to students should be high as content is organized around aspects of their lives Problem/reconstructionist Designs Fosters social action aimed at reconstructing society Schools should engage children in analysis of society in order to improve it (Rugg) Want curricula to advance social justice

12.5. Shadow Curriculum

12.5.1. Hidden Curriculum Arises from interactions between teachers and students

12.5.2. Implicit Curriculum

12.5.3. Null Curriculum Topics that are omitted and recognized as being ignored by students

12.5.4. Operation Curriculum Curriculum that gets taught as a result of teaching planned curriculum

13. Conceptions of Curriculum

13.1. 3 Main Ideas

13.1.1. Socialization Socializes students

13.1.2. Rousseau's Developmental Idea Maturing and growth of mind

13.1.3. Plato's Academic Idea Knowledge of most worth

13.2. Focus of Conception

13.2.1. Individual A means of helping the learner create meaning for themselves Focuses sharply on content Focused on all aspects of the learner, including personal growth and self-actualization

13.2.2. Society Focused on needs of society as a whole. Content is used as a means to drive social change Learners develop awareness of issues and are equipped to participate in societal changes

13.2.3. Technology Focused on processes and efficiency Not very concerned about the content of the curriculum and calls for simple outcomes Makes learning systematic

13.2.4. Academia Focused on traditional academic disciplines and subject matter Content is very important Learners are expected to acquire knowledge and skills required to uphold our western culture

14. Inquiry Based Learning

14.1. Using Big Questions

14.1.1. Guiding questions that are complex, not complicated Big ideas that require evolution, not solution Open-ended Multifaceted Covering wide curriculum topics

14.2. Classrooms are alive students working

14.2.1. Students are made to feel they want to be at school, not that they have to. They GET to be there.

14.3. Students' Interests help guide the topics

14.3.1. Students learn at the appropriate time and place

14.3.2. Students learn to take responsibility for their actions

14.4. Teachers as facilitators of Learning

14.5. Making Learning Learning Visible

14.5.1. "Consider the Walls" Using Student work to enrich the classrom (P. Tarr, 2004)

14.5.2. Teacher Effectiveness Framework (Friesen, 2009) Teachers are designers of learning Worthwhile work Assessment guides students and teachers Teachers foster realtionships Collaboration improves practice and learning

14.5.3. Significant Learning (Fink, 2009)

15. Effective Learning: Shared vision of curriculum, Backward mapping and Mobilizing pedagogy (Hayes, 2003)

15.1. Individual Teachers are the most important

15.2. Making students want to be there; a shared and enjoyed experience