Conceptions, Philosophies and Designs of Curriculum

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Conceptions, Philosophies and Designs of Curriculum by Mind Map: Conceptions, Philosophies and Designs of Curriculum

1. Types of Classroom Assessment

1.1. Pre-assessment

1.1.1. Ascertain student's knowledge

1.2. Formative Assessment

1.2.1. Provide feedback

1.3. Summative Assessment

1.3.1. Documentation

2. Instructional Decision Making

2.1. Before Instruction

2.1.1. Needed to set learning goals

2.2. During Instruction

2.2.1. Needed to adjust the delivery of lessons

2.3. After Instruction

2.3.1. Reflect on process to improve instruction

3. Encouraged by the work and writings of Descartes, Kant, F. Hegel and, Royce

4. Character development and self-realization are important aims of an idealistic education

5. Philosophies of Curriculum

5.1. Idealism

5.1.1. Opposing Specialization

5.1.2. Curriculum is a vehicle by which students are taught to conceptualize, to develop thinking skills and to reach self-actualization. (Hill, 1994)

5.2. Realism

5.2.1. Facts and information about the external world are of great importance in a realistic education.

5.2.2. Performance and competency based learning - which are concerned with measurable ends - are all supported by and applied in a realistic education.

5.3. Pragmatism

5.3.1. Pragmatic education aims at the development of both the psychological and the sociological aspects of the individual.

5.3.2. Their methods are flexible and easily adapted to different subject areas and grade levels, and to individual students differences.

5.3.3. curriculum is composed of both process and content, but it is not fixed or an end in itself

5.4. Pragmaticism

5.4.1. Based on the work of Peirce

5.4.2. A method for clarifying ideas

6. Conceptions of Curriculum

6.1. 3 Main Ideas

6.1.1. Socialization

6.1.1.1. Socializes students

6.1.2. Rousseau's Developmental Idea

6.1.2.1. Maturing and growth of mind

6.1.3. Plato's Academic Idea

6.1.3.1. Knowledge of most worth

6.2. Focus of Conception

6.2.1. Individual

6.2.1.1. A means of helping the learner create meaning for themselves

6.2.1.2. Focuses sharply on content

6.2.1.3. Focused on all aspects of the learner, including personal growth and self-actualization

6.2.2. Society

6.2.2.1. Focused on needs of society as a whole.

6.2.2.2. Content is used as a means to drive social change

6.2.2.3. Learners develop awareness of issues and are equipped to participate in societal changes

6.2.3. Technology

6.2.3.1. Focused on processes and efficiency

6.2.3.2. Not very concerned about the content of the curriculum and calls for simple outcomes

6.2.3.3. Makes learning systematic

6.2.4. Academia

6.2.4.1. Focused on traditional academic disciplines and subject matter

6.2.4.2. Content is very important

6.2.4.3. Learners are expected to acquire knowledge and skills required to uphold our western culture

7. Curriculum Design

7.1. Curriculum Sources:

7.1.1. Science

7.1.1.1. Problem Solving Focus

7.1.1.2. Emphasizes How To Learn

7.1.1.2.1. Strengths

7.1.1.2.2. Weaknesses

7.1.1.2.3. Opportunities

7.1.1.2.4. Threats

7.1.2. Society

7.1.2.1. Socialization of Students

7.1.2.2. Serves interests of society

7.1.2.3. Political Views

7.1.2.3.1. Conservatives want schools to instill traditional values

7.1.2.3.2. Liberals want schools to make students effective professionals or workers

7.1.2.3.3. Radicals want schools to accept interests and knowledge of underrepresented groups

7.1.3. Moral Doctrine

7.1.3.1. Relationship between knowledge and spirituality

7.1.3.1.1. Title

7.1.3.1.2. Industry

7.1.3.1.3. Geography

7.1.3.1.4. Business Size

7.1.3.2. Spirituality fosters mindfulness, attentiveness, awareness of the outside world and self-awareness - Moffett

7.1.3.3. Ask questions about nature of world, purpose of life, and what it means to be human and knowledgeable

7.1.4. Knowledge

7.1.4.1. Teaching valued knowledge stimulates the mind of learners

7.1.4.2. Particular structure and particular method by which scholars extend boundaries

7.1.5. The Learner

7.1.5.1. Focus on how minds create meaning

7.1.5.2. Learning activities facilitate perceiving, thinking, and learning

7.2. Horizontal vs Vertical

7.2.1. Horizontal

7.2.1.1. Blends curriculum elements at same level

7.2.2. Vertical

7.2.2.1. Sequencing curriculum elements

7.3. Dimension Considerations

7.3.1. Scope

7.3.1.1. Breadth and depth of content

7.3.1.2. All content, topics, learning experiences, and organizing threads compromising the educational plan (Tyler)

7.3.1.3. Consider learning's cognitive, affective, and psychomotor domains

7.3.2. Sequence

7.3.2.1. Curriculum should foster cumulative and continuous learning

7.3.2.2. Based on psychological principles or content and experiences

7.3.3. Continuity

7.3.3.1. Vertical repetition of concepts

7.3.3.2. Important concepts are revisited to ensure student understanding

7.3.4. Integration

7.3.4.1. Interdisciplinary curriculum

7.3.4.2. Emphasizes horizontal relationship of topics from all knowledge domains

7.3.4.3. Brings into close relationship the concepts, skills, values that constitute a curriculum so that the elements are mutually reinforcing for learners (Goodland & Su, 1992)

7.3.5. Articulation

7.3.5.1. Vertical

7.3.5.1.1. Sequencing from one grade to the next

7.3.5.2. Horizontal

7.3.5.2.1. Connecting simultaneous elements

7.3.6. Balance

7.3.6.1. Appropriate weight to each aspect of design

7.4. 3 Basic Designs

7.4.1. Subject-Centred Designs

7.4.1.1. Subject Designs

7.4.1.1.1. Best Known - Textbook treatment and teachers as subject specialists

7.4.1.1.2. Classes involve lecturing, direct instruction, recitation, and large-group discussions.

7.4.1.1.3. Organized according to how essential knowledge has developed in subject areas.

7.4.1.2. Broad Field Designs

7.4.1.2.1. Interdisciplinary design

7.4.1.2.2. Sweeping understanding of all subject areas

7.4.1.2.3. Integrate content that fits together naturally

7.4.1.3. Discipline Designs

7.4.1.3.1. Emphasizes separate subject disciplines

7.4.1.3.2. Students learn in a way that mimics the way scholars study their fields.

7.4.1.3.3. Encourages students to see a discipline's logic or structure

7.4.1.4. Correlation Designs

7.4.1.4.1. Midway between separate subjects and total content integration

7.4.1.4.2. Identifies ways that subjects can be related, but maintain separate subjects.

7.4.1.4.3. Organized with reference to broad themes, problems or units

7.4.1.5. Process Designs

7.4.1.5.1. Stress learning general procedures applicable to all disciplines

7.4.1.5.2. Student as meaning maker

7.4.1.5.3. Intellectual thinking recognizes the role of attitude and affect in everyday cognition and the importance of developed patterns of behavior (Ritchhart)

7.4.2. Learner-Centred Designs

7.4.2.1. Child-centred Designs

7.4.2.1.1. Based on students' lives, needs, and interests

7.4.2.1.2. Individuals construct bodies of knowledge from a foundation of simple ideas derived from their experiences (Locke)

7.4.2.1.3. Emphasis of child replaces emphasis on subject matter

7.4.2.2. Experience-centred Designs

7.4.2.2.1. Teachers create stimulating learning environment that students explore in order to come into contact with knowledge and observe others' learning and actions

7.4.2.2.2. Celebrates students' freedom to choose

7.4.2.2.3. Emphasizes the learner's interests, creativity, and self-direction

7.4.2.3. Romantic/Radical Deigns

7.4.2.3.1. Teachers work to separate divide between "haves" and "have nots"

7.4.2.3.2. Teachers as "awareness makers"

7.4.2.3.3. Education should enlighten the masses about their oppression, prompt them to feel dissatisfied with their condition, and give them the competencies necessary for correcting identified inequities (Freire)

7.4.2.4. Humanistic Designs

7.4.2.4.1. Self-actualization

7.4.2.4.2. Environment that encourages genuineness, empathy, and respect for self and others

7.4.2.4.3. Collaborative and multidisciplinary

7.4.3. Problem-Centred Designs

7.4.3.1. Life Situations

7.4.3.1.1. Focus on problem solving procedures

7.4.3.1.2. Activities that are related to life

7.4.3.1.3. Relevance to students should be high as content is organized around aspects of their lives

7.4.3.2. Problem/reconstructionist Designs

7.4.3.2.1. Fosters social action aimed at reconstructing society

7.4.3.2.2. Schools should engage children in analysis of society in order to improve it (Rugg)

7.4.3.2.3. Want curricula to advance social justice

7.5. Shadow Curriculum

7.5.1. Hidden Curriculum

7.5.1.1. Arises from interactions between teachers and students

7.5.2. Implicit Curriculum

7.5.3. Null Curriculum

7.5.3.1. Topics that are omitted and recognized as being ignored by students

7.5.4. Operation Curriculum

7.5.4.1. Curriculum that gets taught as a result of teaching planned curriculum

8. Philosophical Bases

8.1. Perrenialism

8.1.1. Focus on the Past

8.1.2. Cultivate the Intellect

8.1.3. Classical Subjects

8.2. Essentialism

8.2.1. Intellectual Growth

8.2.2. Essential Skills (Three R's & Arithmetic)

8.2.3. Teacher is the authority in their field

8.3. Progressivism

8.3.1. Promoting democratic, social living

8.3.2. Focus on growth and development

8.3.3. Teacher is a guide

8.3.4. Based on Student Interests

8.4. Reconstructionsim

8.4.1. To improve and reconstruct society

8.4.2. Teacher as agent of change

8.4.3. Skills and topic used to address societal problems

9. Guiding Factors

9.1. Ontology: What is Real?

9.2. Epistemology: What is True?

9.3. Axiology: What is Good(valuable)?

10. Inquiry Based Learning

10.1. Using Big Questions

10.1.1. Guiding questions that are complex, not complicated

10.1.1.1. Big ideas that require evolution, not solution

10.1.1.2. Open-ended

10.1.1.3. Multifaceted

10.1.1.4. Covering wide curriculum topics

10.2. Classrooms are alive students working

10.2.1. Students are made to feel they want to be at school, not that they have to. They GET to be there.

10.3. Students' Interests help guide the topics

10.3.1. Students learn at the appropriate time and place

10.3.2. Students learn to take responsibility for their actions

10.4. Teachers as facilitators of Learning

10.5. Making Learning Learning Visible

10.5.1. "Consider the Walls" Using Student work to enrich the classrom (P. Tarr, 2004)

10.5.2. Teacher Effectiveness Framework (Friesen, 2009)

10.5.2.1. Teachers are designers of learning

10.5.2.2. Worthwhile work

10.5.2.3. Assessment guides students and teachers

10.5.2.4. Teachers foster realtionships

10.5.2.5. Collaboration improves practice and learning

10.5.3. Significant Learning (Fink, 2009)

11. Assessment

11.1. Traditional Models

11.1.1. Social Efficiency

11.1.1.1. Scientific management of schools like factories

11.1.1.2. Utilitatrian

11.1.1.3. precise standards

11.1.1.4. curriculum differentiated based on predicted social roles

11.1.2. Associationist and Behaviorist Learning

11.1.2.1. IQ is Innate and fixed

11.1.2.2. stimulus response associations

11.1.2.3. Learning tightly sequenced and hierarchical

11.1.2.4. test-teach-test

11.1.3. Scientific Measurement

11.1.3.1. IQ tests to sort pupils

11.1.3.2. Objective Tests to measure achievement

11.2. Progressive Models

11.2.1. Focus on authentic learning, not feigning competence

11.2.2. Dynamic and Ongoing, more formative

11.2.3. Embracing prior knowledge

11.2.4. Use of feedback

11.2.5. Making knowledge transferable

11.2.6. Using explicit criteria

11.2.7. Use of self-assessment

11.3. High Quality Assessment

12. High Quality Assessment

12.1. Selecting appropriate methods

12.1.1. Selected response (multiple choice, fill in the blank

12.1.2. Constructed response (essays, products and performance)

12.1.3. Teacher observation (formal and informal)

12.1.4. Student self assessment (self report inventories and and evaluations)

12.2. Clear and appropriate learning targets

12.2.1. Transparancy

12.3. Validity

12.3.1. Clear expectations

12.3.2. Increasing student samples

12.3.3. Conferencing with colleagues

12.4. Reliability

12.5. Practical and efficient

12.6. Positive Consequences

12.6.1. Increasing Motivation

12.6.1.1. Relevance

12.6.1.2. Open Ended

12.6.1.3. Meaningful and Authentic

12.6.1.4. Emphasize Progress

12.6.2. Decreasing motivation

12.6.2.1. public display of performance

12.6.2.1.1. Not true for Bart, he loves to get up on stage or on the youtubes

12.6.2.2. Artificial or abstract

12.6.2.3. Summative and closed-ended

12.6.2.4. Emphasize the product

12.7. Fairness

12.7.1. Knowable targets

12.7.2. Unbiased expectations

12.7.3. Equal opportunities to learn

12.8. Alignment

13. Effective Learning: Shared vision of curriculum, Backward mapping and Mobilizing pedagogy (Hayes, 2003)

13.1. Individual Teachers are the most important

13.2. Making students want to be there; a shared and enjoyed experience

14. it was teachers who held beliefs more consistent with traditional principles of scientific measurement (Shepard, 20xx)

15. References: Al Mousa, N. (2013). An examination of cad use in two interior design programs from the perspectives of curriculum and instructors, pp. 21-37 (Master’s Thesis). EdCan Network/Le Reseau Edcan (2014, January 30) A Teacher's P.O.V. on Starting Inquiry-based Learning in the Classroom. [Video File] Retrieved from A Teacher's P.O.V. on Starting Inquiry-based Learning in the Classroom EdCan Network/Le Reseau Edcan (2011, August 31) John Ralston Saul: Where is the Standardized Testing Trend Taking Us? [Video File] Retrieved from http://vimeo.com/28412154 Hayes, D. (2003) Making learning an effect of schooling: aligning curriculum, assessment and pedagogy, Discourse: studies in the cultural politics of education, 24(2), 225-245 Hill, A. M. (1994). Perspectives on philosophical shifts in vocational education: From realism to pragmatism and reconstructionism. Journal of Vocational and Technical Education, 10(2), 37-45. McMillan, J. H. (2014). Classroom assessment: Principles and practice for effective standards-based instruction (6th ed., pp. 1-20, 57-64,74-88). Boston, MA: Pearson. Ornstein, A. C. (1990/1991). Philosophy as a basis for curriculum decisions. The High School Journal, 74, 102-109. Ornstein, A. C., & Hunkins, F. P. (2013). Curriculum: Foundations, principles, and issues (6th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson. Read Chapter 6, pp. 149-173. Robinson, K [Ted Talks] (2013, May 10) How to Escape Education’s Death Valley. [Video File] Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wX78iKhInsc Schiro, M. S. (2013). Introduction to the curriculum ideologies. In M. S. Schiro, Curriculum theory: Conflicting visions and enduring concerns (2nd ed., pp. 1-13). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Shepard, L. A. (2000). The role of assessment in a learning culture. Educational Researcher, 29(7), 4-14. doi:10.3102/0013189X029007004 Sowell, E. J. (2005). Curriculum: An integrative introduction (3rd ed., pp. 52-54, 55-61, 81-85,103-106). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.