The Aging Adult

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The Aging Adult by Mind Map: The Aging Adult

1. References

1.1. iBooks

1.2. Age Related Changes | ConsultGeri Topic

2. Reproductive System

2.1. Male

2.1.1. Prostatic enlargement

2.1.1.1. BPH is common in older males

2.1.2. Decreased sperm count

2.1.3. Incontinence not usual

2.1.4. More time required to achieve and erection

2.1.4.1. Erectile Dysfunction

2.1.5. Atrophy of the testes

2.1.5.1. Reduction in testicular mass

2.2. Female

2.2.1. Prevalent Disease

2.2.1.1. Ovarian Cancer

2.2.1.2. Breast cancer

2.2.2. Hormonal Changes

2.2.2.1. Vulva atrophies

2.2.2.2. Labia flattens

2.2.2.3. Loss of subcutaneous fat and hair

2.2.2.4. Lower Estrogen changes

2.2.2.4.1. more alkaline vaginal pH

2.2.3. Effects of aging

2.2.3.1. Vaginal epithelium thins

2.2.3.1.1. Uterus and ovaries decrease in size

2.2.3.2. Cervix, Uterus, and Fallopian tubes atrophy

2.2.3.3. Vaginal Canal Changes

2.2.3.3.1. Less lubrication

2.2.3.3.2. Less collagen and adipose tissue

2.2.3.3.3. Shortening/ narrowing of the canal

2.2.3.4. Breasts sag and are less firm

3. Urinary System

3.1. Effects of aging

3.1.1. Hypertrophy and thickening bladder muscle

3.1.1.1. Decreases bladder's ability to expand

3.1.1.2. Reduces storage capacity

3.1.1.2.1. Daytime urinary frequency

3.1.2. Changes in cortical control of micturition

3.1.3. Inefficient neurological control of bladder emptying

3.1.3.1. Weaker bladder muscle

3.1.4. Retention of large volumes of urine

3.1.4.1. Male

3.1.4.1.1. Prostatic hypertrophy

3.1.4.2. Female

3.1.4.2.1. Fecal impaction

3.1.5. Kidneys decrease ability to filter

3.1.5.1. Affects elimination of drugs

3.1.5.2. Increases risk for adverse drug reactions

3.1.6. Reduced overall renal fxn

3.1.6.1. High blood urea nitrogen levels

3.1.6.2. Decreased GFR by 50%

3.1.6.2.1. Risk for volume overload, dehydration, electrolyte imbalances

3.1.7. Decreased tubular fxn

3.1.7.1. Changed concentration of urine

3.1.8. Increased renal threshold for glucose

3.1.8.1. False negatives for glucose in urine w/o symptoms

3.1.9. Urinary incontinence not usual

3.1.9.1. Stress

3.1.9.2. Urgency

3.1.9.3. Overflow

3.1.9.4. Functional

3.1.9.5. Neurologic

3.2. Common Disorders

3.2.1. Nocturia

3.2.2. Bladder cancer

3.2.3. Renal calculi

3.2.4. Glomerulonephritis

4. Nervous System

4.1. Effects of aging

4.1.1. Loss of nerve cell mass

4.1.1.1. Brain weight decreases

4.1.2. Demyelinization

4.1.2.1. Slower nerve conduction

4.1.2.2. Slower response and reaction time

4.1.2.3. Weaker reflexes

4.1.3. Free radicals accumulate

4.1.4. Fatty deposits accumulate in blood vessels in brain

4.1.5. Decrease in cerebral blood flow

4.1.5.1. Declining ability to compensate

4.1.6. Intellectual performance maintained until about 80 y/o

4.1.6.1. Verbal skills maintained until about 70 y/o

4.1.7. Slowing in central processing

4.1.7.1. Delay in time required to perform tasks

4.1.8. Decrease in number and sensitivity of sensory receptors, dermatomes, and neurons

4.1.8.1. Dulls tactile sensation

4.1.9. Decline in function of cranial nerves

4.1.9.1. Affects ability to taste and smell

4.2. Common Disorders

4.2.1. Parkinson's Disease

4.2.1.1. Goal is to maximize/perserve independence

4.2.2. TIA

4.2.2.1. Increases risk for a CVA

4.2.3. CVA

4.2.3.1. 3rd leading cause of death

4.2.3.2. Types

4.2.3.2.1. Hemorrhagic

4.2.3.2.2. Ischemic

4.2.4. Increased risk of sleep disorders

4.2.4.1. sleep apnea

4.2.4.2. insomnia

4.2.4.3. Nocturnal myoclonus

5. Respiratory System

5.1. Effects of aging

5.1.1. Decreased elastic recoil

5.1.1.1. Stiffening of chest wall

5.1.1.2. Dyspnea

5.1.2. Lungs reduce in size and weight

5.1.3. Alveoli less elastic

5.1.4. Reduced vital capacity

5.1.4.1. Increased residual volume

5.1.4.2. Decreased exercise tolerance

5.1.5. Decreased cough reflex

5.1.5.1. Increased risk of airway obstruction

5.1.5.2. Increased risk of infection

5.1.6. Weakening of respiratory muscles

5.2. Common Disorders

5.2.1. Asthma

5.2.2. COPD

5.2.2.1. Emphysema

5.2.2.2. Chronic Bronchitis

5.2.3. Lung Cancer

5.2.4. Lung Abscess

6. Cardiovascular System

6.1. Effects of aging

6.1.1. Heart valve thickens

6.1.2. Aorta becomes dilated

6.1.2.1. Slight ventricular hypertrophy

6.1.2.2. Thickening of left ventricular wall

6.1.3. Myocardial muscle less efficient

6.1.3.1. Decreased contractile strength

6.1.3.2. Decreased cardiac output

6.1.3.2.1. Fatigue

6.1.3.2.2. SOB

6.1.4. Calcification/ reduced elasticity of vessels

6.1.5. Less sensitive baroreceptor regulation of blood pressure

6.1.6. Diminished peripheral pulses

6.1.6.1. Colder extremities

6.2. Common Disorders

6.2.1. HTN

6.2.2. Hypotension

6.2.2.1. Consequences

6.2.2.1.1. Falls

6.2.2.1.2. Stroke

6.2.2.1.3. Syncope

6.2.3. CHF

6.2.3.1. Leading cause of hospitalization

6.2.4. Pulmonary Emboli

6.2.5. CAD

6.2.5.1. Hyperlipidemia

6.2.6. Arrhythmias

6.2.7. PVD

6.2.7.1. Ateriosclerosis

6.2.8. Aneurysms

6.2.9. Varicose Veins

6.2.10. DVT

7. Musculoskeletal System

7.1. Effects of aging

7.1.1. Decrease in size and number of muscle fibers

7.1.2. Reduction in muscle mass

7.1.2.1. Decreased body strength

7.1.2.2. Endurance ability declines

7.1.3. Connective tissue changes

7.1.3.1. Reduced flexibility

7.1.3.1.1. Joints

7.1.3.1.2. Muscles

7.1.3.1.3. Limited ROM

7.1.4. Inter-vertebral disc degeneration

7.1.4.1. Kyphosis

7.1.4.2. Shrinking

7.2. Common Disorders

7.2.1. Sarcopenia

7.2.1.1. Age related reduction of muscle mass

7.2.1.2. Reduced protein synthesis

7.2.1.3. Increase in muscle protein degeneration

7.2.2. Fractures

7.2.3. Osteoarthritis

7.2.4. Rheumatoid Arthritis

7.2.5. Osteoporosis

7.2.5.1. Most prevalent metabolic disease of the bone

7.2.5.2. Severely increases in women after menopause

7.2.6. Gout

7.2.7. Podiatric Conditions

7.2.7.1. Calluses

7.2.7.2. Corns

7.2.7.3. Bunions

7.2.7.4. Hammer toe

7.2.7.5. Plantar fasciitis

7.2.7.6. Ingrown nails

8. Digestive System

8.1. Effects of aging

8.1.1. Atrophy of the tongue

8.1.1.1. Affects ability to taste (decreases)

8.1.2. Saliva production decreases

8.1.2.1. Difficulty swallowing

8.1.2.1.1. Fluid/ Electrolyte imbalance

8.1.3. Esophageal and stomach motility decreases

8.1.3.1. Increased risk for aspiration and indegestion

8.1.4. Decreases elasticity of the stomach

8.1.4.1. Reduces amount of food accommodation at one time

8.1.5. Stomach has a higher pH

8.1.5.1. Increases gastric irritation

8.1.5.2. Interferes with absorption of Calcium, Iron, folic acid and VIT B12

8.1.5.3. Altered drug absorption

8.1.5.3.1. Increased rick for toxicity

8.1.6. Decline in pepsin

8.1.6.1. Decreased protein absorption

8.1.7. Slower peristalsis

8.1.7.1. Increased risk of constipation

8.1.8. Bile salt synthesis decreases

8.1.8.1. May lead to gallstone development

8.1.9. BMR Decreases

8.2. Common Disorders

8.2.1. Presbyesophagus

8.2.1.1. weaker esophageal contractions/sphincter

8.2.2. Dry Mouth (Xerostomia)

8.2.3. Dysphagia

8.2.4. Hiatal Hernia

8.2.5. Esophageal Cancer

8.2.6. PUD

8.2.7. Stomach Cancer

9. Immune System

9.1. Effects of aging

9.1.1. Increased risk of infection

9.1.2. Decreased cell immunity

9.1.3. Decreased inflammatory defences

9.1.4. Infections manifest with atypical symptoms

9.1.4.1. Altered mental status

9.1.4.2. Falls

9.1.4.3. Fatigue

9.1.4.4. Incontinence

9.1.4.5. Decreased appetite

9.1.5. Increased number of immature T cells

9.1.5.1. Reduced response to foreign antigens

9.1.5.2. Decrease in cell-mediated and hormonal immunity

9.1.6. Reduced antibody response

9.2. Common infections/ disorders

9.2.1. Pneumonia

9.2.2. TB

9.2.3. UTI

9.2.4. GERD

9.2.5. Peritonitis

10. Endocrine System

10.1. Effects of aging

10.1.1. Thyroid gland atrophies and activity decreases

10.1.2. Diminished adrenal function

10.1.3. ACTH secretion decreases

10.1.4. Volume of pituitary gland decreases

10.1.5. Insufficient release of insulin and reduced tissue sensitivity to circulating insulin

10.2. Common Disorders

10.2.1. Diabetes Mellitus

10.2.2. Hypothyroidism

10.2.3. Hyperthyroidism

11. Sensory Changes

11.1. Effects of aging

11.1.1. Visual changes

11.1.1.1. Reduced elasticity and stiffening of the muscle fibers of the lens

11.1.1.2. Decreased ability to focus

11.1.1.2.1. Presbyopia

11.1.1.3. Reduced pupil size

11.1.1.4. Opacification of the lens and vitreous

11.1.1.5. Visual acuity declines

11.1.1.6. Loss of photoreceptor cells in the retina

11.1.1.6.1. Light perception threshold decreases

11.1.1.6.2. Dark and light adaptation takes longer

11.1.1.6.3. Difficulty with vision at night

11.1.1.7. Increased sensitivity to glare

11.1.1.8. Distortion in depth perception

11.1.2. Hearing changes

11.1.2.1. Sensorineural hearing loss

11.1.2.1.1. Presbycusis

11.1.2.2. Impacted cerumen

11.1.3. Other changes

11.1.3.1. Number of functioning taste buds decreased

11.1.3.2. Decreased tactile sensation

11.1.3.3. Difficulty discriminating between temperatures

12. Physical Appearance

12.1. Hair loss

12.2. Shrinkage

12.3. Wrinkles