The Science of Timing: Three Lessons Daniel Pink 26 Jan 2018

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The Science of Timing: Three Lessons Daniel Pink 26 Jan 2018 by Mind Map: The Science of Timing:  Three Lessons Daniel Pink 26 Jan 2018

1. Introduction

1.1. Former Life

1.1.1. Political speech writer

1.1.2. Effective presentations

1.1.2.1. Friday evening...

1.1.2.2. 3 ingredients

1.1.2.2.1. Brevity

1.1.2.2.2. Levity

1.1.2.2.3. Repetition

1.1.3. Believer in repetition

1.2. Timing

1.2.1. Puzzle

1.2.1.1. Decision making

1.2.1.1.1. When...

1.2.1.1.2. Normal haphazard approach

1.2.1.1.3. There is a better way

1.2.1.2. Lots of research

1.2.1.2.1. Economics

1.2.1.2.2. Anthropology

1.2.1.2.3. Chronobiology

1.2.1.3. Lots of questions

1.2.1.3.1. When to exercise?

1.2.1.3.2. Why avoid medicine in afternoon?

1.2.1.3.3. Recession employment

1.2.1.3.4. Mid-life slump?

1.2.1.3.5. Singing good for you?

1.2.1.3.6. When is divorce most likely?

1.2.2. Timing is a science

1.2.2.1. (Not an art)

1.2.3. 3 Ideas

1.2.3.1. Pattern of day affects mood & performance

1.2.3.2. We underestimate the power of breaks

1.2.3.3. Endings help us energize and elevate

2. Pattern of day affects mood & performance

2.1. Research

2.1.1. Big Data

2.1.1.1. Providing lots of new insights

2.1.1.2. Learning lots about timing

2.1.1.3. Example: Analysing text

2.1.1.3.1. Emotional content

2.1.2. Research at Cornell

2.1.2.1. Used 500m Tweets

2.1.2.1.1. 2.4m users

2.1.2.1.2. 84 countries

2.1.2.2. Matched emotions and time

2.1.2.3. Results

2.1.2.3.1. Peak

2.1.2.3.2. Low

2.1.2.3.3. Recovery

2.1.3. Day Reconstruction Method

2.1.3.1. People recording their day

2.1.3.1.1. What activities

2.1.3.1.2. What mood/emotion

2.1.3.2. Found the same pattern

2.1.3.2.1. Peaks in morning

2.1.3.2.2. Dip in afternoon

2.1.3.2.3. Rises in evening

2.2. Mood

2.2.1. Affects performance

2.2.1.1. Equivalent of drinking alcohol

2.2.2. Examples

2.2.2.1. Test scores in Denmark

2.2.2.1.1. Standardised

2.2.2.1.2. Assigned times of day

2.2.2.1.3. Results?

2.2.2.2. Medical appointments in PM

2.2.2.2.1. Anaesthesia errors

2.2.2.2.2. Hand washing

2.2.2.2.3. Colonoscopies

2.2.2.2.4. And many more...

2.3. Intention

2.3.1. We're intentional about what

2.3.1.1. To do lists

2.3.1.2. What tasks

2.3.2. Less intentional about when

2.4. What to do?

2.4.1. "Synchrony effect"

2.4.2. Match type-task-time

2.4.2.1. Your chronotype

2.4.2.1.1. Wake up early/late?

2.4.2.1.2. Sleep early/late?

2.4.2.1.3. How to determine?

2.4.2.1.4. Different types peak at different times

2.4.2.2. Your Task

2.4.2.2.1. What type of task?

2.4.2.2.2. Insight work/problems

2.4.2.3. Your Time

2.4.2.3.1. At peak: Analytics

2.4.2.3.2. In the trough: Admin

2.4.2.3.3. Recovery period: Insight

2.5. Takeaways

2.5.1. Be more intentional

2.5.1.1. In scheduling tasks and time

2.5.1.2. Employers

2.5.1.2.1. Protect these times for people

2.5.1.2.2. Match type-task-time

2.5.1.3. What type/time meetings

2.5.2. When matters as much as

2.5.2.1. Who

2.5.2.2. What

2.5.3. Move analytic tasks to peak

2.5.3.1. Keep the peak period sacred

2.5.4. Move insight tasks to recovery

3. We underestimate the power of breaks

3.1. Cultural norms

3.1.1. No sleep = hero

3.1.2. "Power through" wins

3.1.3. Totally wrong

3.2. Impact of breaks

3.2.1. e.g. Parole study

3.2.1.1. Israeli parole judges

3.2.1.1.1. Freedom vs not

3.2.1.1.2. Big/impactful decisions

3.2.1.2. Observation

3.2.1.2.1. Time of day effect

3.2.1.2.2. Judges more lenient after breaks

3.2.1.3. This should alarm us...

3.2.1.3.1. Imagine the parolee...

3.2.1.3.2. Your fate in hands of breaks...?!

3.2.1.3.3. Implications everywhere

3.2.2. As important as sleep

3.2.2.1. We need more breaks

3.2.2.2. Improves mood

3.2.2.3. Restore vigilance

3.3. Right kind of breaks

3.3.1. Something beats nothing

3.3.1.1. 2 mins better than 0

3.3.2. Moving beats stationary

3.3.3. Social beats solo

3.3.3.1. (Even for introverts)

3.3.4. Outside beats inside

3.3.5. Fully detached is best

3.3.5.1. Leave phone behind

3.3.5.2. Detach from work

3.4. How to take a nap...

3.4.1. Avoid feeling terrible...?

3.4.1.1. Mentally fuzzy

3.4.1.2. Morally appalled...

3.4.2. Ideal length: 10-20 mins

3.4.2.1. Benefit of nap

3.4.2.2. But without sleep inertia

3.4.3. How to do it?

3.4.3.1. Find your afternoon low point

3.4.3.1.1. Observe yourself

3.4.3.1.2. Normally 7 hours after wake up

3.4.3.2. Create peaceful environment

3.4.3.3. Drink a cup of coffee...

3.4.3.3.1. Caffeine kicks in after 20 mins

3.4.3.3.2. Helps bring you back after

3.4.3.3.3. The Nappucino

3.4.3.4. Set 25 minute timer

3.5. Takeaways

3.5.1. Breaks part of work (not a deviation)

3.5.2. Schedule your breaks

4. Endings help us energize and elevate

4.1. Endings help create meaning

4.2. First marathon age: 29

4.2.1. "Before my 30s..."

4.2.2. And 39, 49, 59...

4.2.3. Reaching end of decade

4.3. Gift certificate behaviour

4.3.1. 2 options

4.3.1.1. 3 weeks to use

4.3.1.2. 2 months to use

4.3.2. Sooner ending = better uptake

4.4. "Good news and bad news"

4.4.1. We want bad first

4.4.2. We prefer elevated endings

4.5. Chocolate study

4.5.1. Rate on 1-10 scale

4.5.2. 2 groups treated differently

4.5.3. Identifying as 'last' increased enjoyment

4.6. Takeaways

4.6.1. Shine a light on endings

4.6.1.1. Energize yourself & others

4.6.2. Always give bad news first

4.6.3. Highlight the 'last chocolate'

4.6.4. Use endings to create meaning

5. Wrap Up

5.1. Bad News

5.1.1. Not taking 'when' seriously enough

5.1.2. They have material impact

5.1.2.1. Productivity

5.1.2.2. Creativity

5.1.2.3. Happiness

5.2. Good News

5.2.1. Evidence exists

5.2.2. We can act like scientists

5.2.2.1. A/B test

5.2.2.2. Follow evidence

5.2.3. Small changes can help a lot

6. Questions

6.1. Chronotype vs conditioning?

6.1.1. Chronotype

6.1.1.1. Inate

6.1.1.2. Biological

6.1.1.3. Changes over time

6.1.1.3.1. e.g. kids vs teens

6.1.2. Try to accommodate the type

6.2. Impacts on shift workers?

6.2.1. Really bad for our health

6.2.1.1. Not built for this

6.2.1.2. Dangerous...

6.2.2. Shift work: Class bias

6.2.2.1. Heavily linked to education

6.2.2.2. Likely fewer options

6.3. Chronotypes and collaboration in teams?

6.3.1. Consider types

6.3.1.1. Of people

6.3.1.2. Of meeting

6.3.2. Align Task, Time, Types

6.3.3. Raise awareness of types

6.3.4. Look for asynchronous options

6.3.4.1. Gather input

6.3.4.2. Make available after

6.3.5. Encourage breaks

6.4. Time of day to pitch/sell an idea?

6.4.1. People have 'default decisions'

6.4.2. When most likely to overcome default?

6.4.3. Think of Israel Judge study

6.4.3.1. Early in the day

6.4.3.2. After breaks

6.4.4. Think of sequence

6.4.4.1. How many others pitching...

6.4.4.2. Few competitors

6.4.4.2.1. Go first

6.4.4.3. Lots of competitors

6.4.4.3.1. Go last

6.4.5. Does not create certainty, but tilts odds...

6.5. Organisations working this way?

6.5.1. Handwashing in hospitals

6.5.1.1. Creating breaks/social breaks

6.5.1.2. Michigan Medical Centre

6.5.1.2.1. Taking a time out

6.5.1.2.2. "Vigilance break"

6.5.1.2.3. Checklists to enhance

6.5.1.3. Doing work to correct

6.5.2. Some accidentally

6.5.2.1. Flexible working

6.5.3. Many are not

6.6. Best time for email marketing?

6.6.1. Use A/B testing

6.6.2. Specific to your list