My Foundations of Education

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My Foundations of Education by Mind Map: My Foundations of Education

1. Politics of Education, Chapter 2

1.1. The Intellectual Purposes

1.1.1. This is the basics: reading, writing, mathematics. However, it also covers deeper thinking and knowledge such as literature, history, and science and developing critical thinking skills.

1.2. The Political Purposes

1.2.1. This serves to create students that are patriotic and understand our way of government, who assimilate to the culture and understand how to participate in our government.

1.3. The Social Purposes

1.3.1. This serves to help build community and solve social problems. It helps build students who are capable of participating in and enhancing the society as they grow and mature and accept more responsibility in their lives.

1.4. The Economical Purposes

1.4.1. This serves to prepare students for life after school, when they move into their chosen professions and gives them a basis through which to understand occupational roles.

1.5. The Role of the School: The Conservative Perspective

1.5.1. This perspective views the role of the school as a preparer of fruitful members of society. It believes in maximizing the potential and ability of the highest-achieving to be successful. It also stresses the preparation and eventual blending of students into society in such a way that they maintain, rather than disrupt, social order.

1.6. Explanations of Unequal Educational Performance: The Liberal Perspective

1.6.1. This perspective recognizes that there are differences in the backgrounds from which each student comes. It seeks, then, to ensure those who began with little, or perhaps lesser opportunity, are provided with the policies and programs that will give them the chance to be successful on par with other students.

1.7. Definition of Educational Problems: The Radical Perspective

1.7.1. This perspective believes that unless you are a member of the majority, the educational system is biased against you; in short, that the educational system is geared toward white males. It also believes that the educational system promotes conformity to its traditional curriculum, which is exclusive, and that it hinders the growth and opportunity of minority students.

2. Schools as Organizations, Chapter 6

2.1. What is included

2.2. What is excluded

3. History of U.S. Education, Chapter 3

3.1. The Age of Reform: The Rise of the Common School

3.1.1. Horace Mann, with his belief that public education should be free, lobbied for a state school board to be created. Having garnered enough support within the state, Massachusetts established the first state school board in our nation's history, electing Horace Mann its first secretary. Mann held the position for 11 years.

3.1.2. Though it had its opponents the common school is the forebear of our education system today, without which it may have taken longer to implement an education system and might have delayed the advancements we have accomplished thus far.

3.2. Understanding the History of U.S. Education: A Conservative Perspective

3.2.1. This perspective argues that the democratic-liberal position has sought to promote political and social values through the educational system but that this has occurred at the expense of educational quality. While the conservative perspective believes that education should be fair and provided equally, similar to the democratic-liberal perspective, it believes the democrat-liberal perspective has placed political desires ahead of educational outcomes and, as such, has lost sight of the proper end goal of preparing our students to be highly functioning, productive members of society.

4. Curriculum and Pedagogy, Chapter 7

4.1. Budget

4.1.1. Materials

4.1.2. Personnel

4.1.3. Services

4.1.4. Duration

4.2. Deadline

4.3. Requirements

5. Philosophy of Education, Chapter 5

5.1. Pragmatism

5.1.1. This philosophy is built on the desire to find solutions to problems. It centers on the work of individuals who are faced with a problem who must then thoughtfully consider a solution and then execute it such that the problem is met with resolution.

5.1.1.1. Generic Notions

5.1.1.1.1. The idea in regard to education is that children have some knowledge but can amass more. As such, schools take what students know and through curriculum and life experiences add to the student's base knowledge through what we would today call scaffolding.

5.1.1.2. Key Researchers

5.1.1.2.1. George Sanders Pierce, William James, and John Dewey are key researchers and founders of this philosophy. However, there are also several European philosophers who could be considered among that group as well.

5.1.1.3. Goal of Education

5.1.1.3.1. Pragmatism seeks to educate students in a way that they graduate as positive contributors to society. It views education as a means to contribute to and maintain a functioning democratic society. The school is viewed as a smaller version of the society in which students can learn and understand how to behave once they are released into the "real world."

5.1.1.4. Role of the Teacher

5.1.1.4.1. In pragmatism the teacher serves as a facilitator of the curriculum rather than an authoritarian figure to whom the students must provide their attention at all times. The benefit of this is that the teacher creates a more collaborative atmosphere that enables the students to take some responsibility for and control over their education. In so doing, they are likely to gain more from learning in this way.

5.1.1.5. Methods of Instruction

5.1.1.5.1. Individual and group learning are key components of pragmatism. Similar to the role of teacher as a collaborator, the methods used to teach in a pragmatic way were those that promoted collaboration, such as tables that students could gather around or move so that they could work individually. Field trips that reinforced classroom instruction were another method. The methods of instruction in pragmatism were geared toward providing students the ability to grow in a society-type setting, one where they could converse with their peers and were allowed to be more autonomous with their freedoms.

5.1.1.6. Curriculum

5.1.1.6.1. Curriculum in the pragmatist philosophy believed that subjects could be taught in an integrated manner. They believed that certain topics could lend themselves to the various areas that are studied in education - math, science, English, history, literature, art, etc. They also believed the curriculum should grow and change as the students and society dictated at the time, thus providing a relevant course of study at all times.

6. Sociological Perspectives, Chapter 4

6.1. Theoretical Perspectives Concerning the Relationship Between School and Society

6.1.1. Functionalism

6.1.1.1. Those who ascribe to this perspective consider how ideas or people function together as a whole. The interdependence of the parts is very critical to this perspective. As such, they believe students should be placed in programs consistent with their abilities and that allow them to interact best with their environment.

6.1.2. Conflict Theory

6.1.2.1. This who are proponents of this theory believe there is a struggle at play in the education system. They believe that certain students are favored over others, that students and teachers are at odds with each other and that teachers and administrators also are in a power struggle with each other.

6.1.3. Interactionalism

6.1.3.1. Those who belong to the idea of interactionalism view the previous two theories as abstract yet generalized. Instead, interactionalists would prefer to try to blend the concepts of functionalist theory and conflict theory so that provide a better picture of where the school truly is.

6.2. 5 Impactful Effects of Schooling on Individuals

6.2.1. Knowledge and Attitudes

6.2.1.1. Schools that are more academically inclined and stricter on a routine basis tend to produce students who demonstrate high levels of learning. As student achievement levels rise, so do their knowledge base and their attitudes toward learning and society.

6.2.2. Employment

6.2.2.1. Though having a degree has proven to lead to higher levels of employment it does not necessarily correlate to high success rate once employed. The likely cause for this is that employers want to be assured that employees are capable of following instructions, staying on task, and completing assignments even though there may be varying levels to which these are done.

6.2.3. Teacher Behavior

6.2.3.1. Through their behavior, teachers can either promote positivity and build their students up or they can emote negativity and hinder student growth. The way a teacher behaves and interacts with his/her students largely influences the way the students come to think about themselves and their abilities and the opportunities they have to be successful.

6.2.4. Inadequate Schools

6.2.4.1. Unfortunately, there can be a large variance in the quality of education a school provides. Students who live in suburban areas or attend private schools are more likely to receive a quality education than their counterparts who live in inner-city or urban settings. The effect can even go beyond the diploma to the way students view themselves in relation to their social value.

6.2.5. Tracking

6.2.5.1. Tracking, though likely intended to be a positive construct, can actually be positive or negative depending on how it is used. Students who are assigned to higher level tracks tend to perform better and receive better teaching than do students who are placed on lower tracks. If care is not taken, a student's track can essentially become a self-fulfilling prophecy if either the positives or negatives are reinforced by the school.

7. Equality of Opportunity, Chapter 8

8. Educational Inequality, Chapter 9

9. Educational Reform, Chapter 10