Foundations of Education

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Foundations of Education by Mind Map: Foundations of Education

1. Chapter 2: Politics of Education

1.1. Purposes of Education

1.1.1. 1. Intellectual Purposes

1.1.1.1. Teach Basic Cognitive Skills.

1.1.1.2. Transmit Specific Knowledge.

1.1.1.3. Develop Higher Level Thinking Skills.

1.1.2. 2. Political Purposes

1.1.2.1. Allocate students to political order.

1.1.2.2. Prepare students to participate in political order. Example would be voting.

1.1.2.3. Teach Children basic laws.

1.1.2.4. Teach how to work together with different ethnic groups.

1.1.3. 3. Social Purposes

1.1.3.1. Teach students to solve social problems.

1.1.3.2. Work together with multiple institutions including church, family, and etc.

1.1.3.3. Ensure Social Cohesion. Teach Students To Embrace Roles.

1.1.4. 4. Economic Purposes

1.1.4.1. Prepare students for occupational roles.

1.1.4.2. Train students to succeed in multiple divisions of labor.

1.1.4.3. Help students realize strengths and weaknesses affected to job creation.

1.2. Conservative Perspective: Contains Similarities to Social Darwinism

1.2.1. 1. The Role of the School.

1.2.1.1. According to the conservative role of school. It is the schools job to provide students with resources and tools to succeed independently. Setting these principles for the most hard working students. It is also the schools job to prepare students for roles that they will see in a work environment.

1.2.2. 2. Explanation of unequal performance.

1.2.2.1. Conservatives believe that individual performance or group performance is based on the intelligence, hard work, and sacrifice of the individual or group. A school's responsibility is to give students opportunities to succeed, but can not artificially manipulate this process.

1.2.3. 3. Definition of educational problems.

1.2.3.1. Conservatives for decades have argued their beliefs against radicals and liberals. Both sides have presented different arguments on greater equality. Conservatives feel they have given students equal chances at education based on the lowering of academic standards required by students. Conservatives call this the decline of standards. Also conservatives have argued that schools have also watered down the traditional values of the educational system to appease to different cultural groups. They call this the decline of cultural literacy. On the argument of moral standards, conservatives feel that schools lost that standard years ago and should not teach these principles. Conservatives also feel that schools have lost control of enforcing the principles of freedom and individuality due to the chaotic nature of these issues. Conservatives feel that due to schools being state controlled, schools are immune to the laws of the competitive free market, thus becoming inefficient in their goals.

1.2.3.1.1. Principles from Synopsis of Conservative Views

1.2.3.1.2. 1. Decline of Cultural Literacy

1.2.3.1.3. 2. Decline of Standards

1.2.3.1.4. 3. Decline of Values or of Civilization

1.2.3.1.5. 4. Decline of Authority

2. Chapter 3: History of Education

2.1. Educational Reaction and Reform and the Standards Era: 1980s-2012

2.1.1. Conservatives and liberals would continue to fight over education throughout the 1960's. Conservatives felt that the liberal transitioning in schools, were leading to decreased standards. This debate between liberals and conservatives would continue. After the publishing of "A Nation at Risk", conservatives began to suggest new guidelines for education which included: Completing basic areas in English, Math, Reading, Sciences, and Social Studies that would carry on for three to four years, Colleges should raise admission requirements to help better prepare students in high school. Teachers should have more devotion to teaching these new basics, and the community should elevate teaching as a respected practice. All of these principles have and continue to impact education currently, and had a significant impact during the 1980's and 1900's.

2.2. The Radical-Revisionist School and Its Principles

2.2.1. Beginning around the 1960's, traditional liberal and conservative principles were challenged by radical historian's, sociologists, and political economists. Key leaders of this way of thinking included: Michael Katz, Joel Spring, and Clarence Karier. They believed that the evolution of education was not for the people, but rather as a way to control the working class. They felt the elites wanted to raise standards of education to limit working class people. They also felt liberal agenda pandered to the thinking of the upper class. They felt that expanded guidelines and procedures did not calculate to success, but rather this form of education only helped the elite.

3. Chapter 4: The Sociology of Education

3.1. Theoretical Perspectives

3.1.1. 1. Functionalism

3.1.1.1. This perspective stresses the interdependence of the social system. Functionalists view society as a machine. Every job and person must work together to establish a well running social order. Functionalists feel that education is an important cog in the figurative machine to set a basis for improved moral cohesion. Education also prepares said individuals to communicate and operate effectively.

3.1.2. 2. Conflict Theory

3.1.2.1. This theory is based on the principles of Social Darwinism. Supporters believe unlike functionalism, that society is not meant to work together like a machine. People can coexist, but education is primarily to help those with superior traits develop into effective human beings. If society tries to integrate everyone in society, you only hinder the success of the best and most skilled workers.

3.1.3. 3. Interactionalism

3.1.3.1. This principle is not a principle in of itself, but rather an extension of Conflict Theory and Functionalism. Interactionalism states that both Conflict Theory and Functionalism are very broad on their observations of the educational structure. Interactionalism digs deeper into the processes of schools. Focusing and analyzing what happens daily in schools and relates that to society. This theory is important because, this analysis is important to determine how effective education actually is.

3.2. Effects of Schooling

3.2.1. 1. Knowledge and Attitudes

3.2.1.1. Many researchers have debated how school helps develop attitudes of students. Many feel that school has some impact on students, but that school is not the main reason students develop certain attitudes. Research has shown however, that certain policies not only impact a child's attitude, but the way they learn as well. It is important for schools to engage students socially to help develop key social skills they will need later in life.

3.2.2. 2. Employment

3.2.2.1. Many students are taught that graduating from college will help them successfully gain employment. "In 1986, about 54 percent of the 8 million college graduates in the United States entered professional and technical jobs". Employment has been linked to higher schooling and it is important for workers, especially those who work white collar jobs, to develop skills that will help them communicate with others. It is also important for individuals to know their content effectively, as this way of thinking has made the job market even more competitive.

3.2.3. 3. Teacher Behavior

3.2.3.1. Belief that teacher's have a huge impact on the lives of their students. Teacher's are role models that students at a young age can look up to. Older students, can come to these educators for advice they might not receive or feel comfortable asking at home. Teacher's should look to positively affect students beyond teaching them needed skills. Teacher's should be a model that students can look to and strive to be in society. Although teachers, like other people have flaws and will make mistakes, it is important to help student's grow as much as possible. Doing so helps give said students the necessary tools they will need.

3.2.4. 4. Mobility

3.2.4.1. Belief that mobility both socially and economically, begins in school. Americans feel that education is the ticket to a successful future. It is important to integrate social, cultural, and class differences in school to prepare students for the outside world. Teaching students that social mobility is possible leads them for a higher chance of a successful future.

3.2.5. 5. De Facto Segregation

3.2.5.1. It is important to integrate students in a setting. While racial tension and racial conflict will always exist, schools should do everything possible to reinforce knowledge of racial inequality. It is important to be knowledgeable about these issues. It also benefits non-white students to be in a mixed environment to teach cohesion.

4. Chapter 5: The Philosophy of Education

4.1. Pragmatism

4.1.1. 1. Generic Motions

4.1.1.1. "Purely American" view that people find views and concepts that work for them. These theorists feel that everyone is different and achieve success based on what individually works for them.

4.1.2. 2. Key Researchers

4.1.2.1. 1. George Sanders Pierce

4.1.2.2. 2. William James

4.1.2.3. 3. John Dewey

4.1.3. 3. Goal of Education

4.1.3.1. View that schools are required for developing a child's inner psyche. These researchers felt that people were born with principles of being good people. The goal of education is to unlock these positive characteristics and help students to harness them.

4.1.4. 4. Role of Teacher

4.1.4.1. The teacher is a facilitator. The teacher is to offer suggestions, encouragement, questions, and helps plan and implement plans of study. Important to implementing curriculum.

4.1.5. 5. Method of Instruction

4.1.5.1. Encourage students to ask questions, work individually, and also learn to work in groups. Important to include problem solving and inquiry method into teaching.

4.1.6. 6. Curriculum

4.1.6.1. Follow an integrated curriculum. Want to use the principles learned from Math, English, Science, and History to solve problems. Want to teach students to start at whats known and work to figure out what is unknown.

5. Chapter 6: Schools as Organizaions

5.1. Stakeholders

5.1.1. Alabama Senators

5.1.1.1. Doug Jones

5.1.1.2. Richard Shelby

5.1.2. House of Representatives

5.1.2.1. Terri Sewell

5.1.2.2. Mo Brooks

5.1.3. State Superintendent

5.1.3.1. Michael Sentence

5.1.4. State School Board Representative

5.1.4.1. Kay Ivey

5.1.5. Local Superintendent

5.1.5.1. Gale Satchel

5.1.6. Board Members

5.1.6.1. Thomas Barnes

5.1.6.2. Thomas Burgess

5.1.6.3. Sandra James

5.1.6.4. Carrie Mitchell

5.1.6.5. Mary Moore

5.1.6.6. Ricky Saint

5.2. School culture/ process

5.2.1. Determining school cultures and school changes is very tricky, School changes are affected by the changing culture of a school and its district. This can be determined by factors such as: school performance, district performance, changing in the school board, and setting a new goals by the school board. There are more factors than this, but school culture and change is determined by the board and be be based off of personal or even political beliefs on how a school or system should be ran.

6. Chapter 7: Curriculum and Pedagogy

6.1. Curriculum Theory

6.1.1. Social Efficiency Theory- This theory states that curriculum is developed to help students develop outside of the school environment. I agree with this theory and feel that schools should introduce concepts that will help students succeed in life after school, as well as in the workforce.

6.2. Traditions of Teaching

6.2.1. Mimetic Tradition

6.2.1.1. Belief that the goal of education and schooling is to teach main objectives and be able to teach specific areas and cover general knowledge and material goals for students.

6.2.2. Transformative Tradition

6.2.2.1. Students are part of the learning process. Students are more engaged in what they learn and education is tailored to their individual strengths and weaknesses.

7. Chapter 8: Equality and Opportunity

7.1. Effects of Social Stereotypes in the School Environment

7.1.1. Class

7.1.1.1. Grouping students based on preconceived notions of background. This can include grouping them based on the economic well being of their parents. Students who "present" themselves better tend to get better treatment from students. Labeling students can further hinder the educational well being of "lower-income students"

7.1.2. Gender

7.1.2.1. Due to misconception and prejudice in the workplace, this can sometimes carry over into schooling as well. Since many believe that schooling prepares students for the work environment, some schools take more time and give more opportunity to male students. This gap has been reduced in the last 20 to 30 years.

7.1.3. Race

7.1.3.1. Race has always played a factor in schooling. White students have been given more resources and tend to test higher and be in the top of their class in certain areas. This is not to say that Black, Hispanic, and Asian students are not capable of testing higher. However, due to racial tension in the public, many young students tend to feel alienated and disconnected from their peers and do not gain overall academic growth in schooling. This is beginning to improve in part to increased discussion of these issues in the classroom and public.

7.2. Coleman Study: 1982

7.2.1. During this study, two factors in schooling were determined. The first being that forms of discipline differed in public schooling and private schooling. The second factor, is that private school tended to be more effective for low income students.

8. Chapter 9: Explanations of Educations Inequality

8.1. Cultural Differences

8.1.1. White Students

8.1.1.1. School theory which suggests that often times white students reject culture and roles. Feel that they should not have to be defined by a set of rules.

8.1.2. Non- White Students

8.1.2.1. School theory that students will llimit themselves due to prior injustices. Believe that they will never achieve equality and feel that their is a "Job ceiling". They feel that society can not be changed .

8.2. School Explanations for Inequality

8.2.1. Schools have justified this inequality due to social issues. The argument that schools reflect their environment dictates this viewpoint. Therefore, schools only supported it since it was accepted in society.

9. Chapter 10: Educational Reform and School Improvement

9.1. School Based Reforms

9.1.1. Teacher Quality

9.1.1.1. It is important to hire teacher that know the right material. It is also important to hire effective teachers with classroom management to better solve the issues of student inequality and be able to connect all students in a classroom setting.

9.1.2. Teacher Education

9.1.2.1. It is important to hold teachers accountable for failures in the school enviorment. Setting a high standard of teaching is key to the betterment of the students. At the same time, it is important for the school system to make sure they set proper criteria to meet this goal.

9.2. Reforms That Impact Education

9.2.1. School Finance Reform

9.2.1.1. Schools should be able to keep up with advancing technology in the school environment. Due to the world growing an an increasing rate in overall technological use, a school system fails its students if it can not keep up with this demand. Some school are able to gain funding for new technology but, the state dictates overall the money that goes into the school system. Steps and reform has been taken to try to keep up with society as a whole.

9.2.2. Community and Social Reform

9.2.2.1. Schools are a byproduct of their communities. Reforming policies to better implement positive change in communities such as youth programs, after school programs, and additional student school help and help the school system as a whole. Since schools are a byproduct of their communities, they should try to get involved in the community as much as possible not only to help the school system itself, but to have a direct influence on the overall lives of the students and teach these students to care and respect their community and those around them.