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Clubbing by Mind Map: Clubbing

1. Overview

1.1. bulbous fusiform enlargement of the distal portion of a digit

1.2. Individuals without clubbing display a diamond-shaped window at the base of the nail beds when the dorsum of 2 fingers from the opposite hands are opposed

1.2.1. In individuals with digital clubbing, the diamond window is obliterated and the distal angle between the nails increases with increasing severity of clubbing.

1.3. Primary clubbing (idiopathic/hereditary) vs secondary clubbing (non-idiopathic & non-hereditary)

1.4. Different pathological processes can lead to clubbing. The pathophysiological mechanism of clubbing is still unclear.

2. DDx

2.1. Pulmonary disease

2.1.1. Lung cancer

2.1.1.1. most common cause of clubbing

2.1.2. cystic fibrosis

2.1.2.1. a genetic condition that affects how salt and water are moved throughout the body and creates thick secretions within the lungs and other organs

2.1.3. interstitial lung disease

2.1.4. lipoid pneumonia

2.1.5. empyema

2.2. Cardiac disease

2.2.1. Cyanotic congenital heart disease

2.2.2. bacterial endocarditis

2.2.3. other causes of right-to-left shunting

2.3. Gastrointestinal diseases

2.3.1. Ulcerative colitis

2.3.2. Crohn disease

2.3.3. primary biliary cirrhosis

2.4. Skin disease

2.4.1. Pachydermoperiostosis

2.4.2. Volavsek syndrome

2.5. Malignancies

2.5.1. Thyroid cancer

2.5.2. thymus cancer

2.6. Idiopathic

3. Symtoms/Presentations

3.1. Lovibond Angle >180 degrees

3.1.1. Image 1

3.2. Obliterated diamond window & increasing distal angle between nails

3.2.1. Image 2

3.3. Spongy sensation when the nail is pressed

3.3.1. Fibrovascular tissues depositing beneath the nails

3.4. Pain in the fingertips (rare)

4. Treatments

4.1. No specific treatment (Depends on the underlying pathological condition)

4.2. Not necessarily reversible

4.3. No specific surgical procedures

4.4. Consultations with professionals are necessary as it is a clinical sign of many pathological processes