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Cell Division by Mind Map: Cell Division

1. The most typical treatments for it are surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy.

2. .

3. Mesothelioma is a very rare cancer and is oftentimes found in people between 50-70 years of age.

4. Symptoms

5. Pain areas: in the chest or rib

6. HeLa cells are cells that are used for investigational purposes all over the world. They were the first immortal human cells ever created in a laboratory and they came from an African-American cervical cancer patient named Henrietta Lacks. These cells are important because with them, scientists are able to perform tests that aren't possible to perform on a human being. This has led to breakthroughs in the fields of medicine, and more. HeLa cells are very controversial because they were taken without the consent of an African-American patient, and the family of Henrietta did not receive any recognition or retribution from Henrietta's cells.

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8. Cyclins control the cell cycle along with the cyclin-dependent kinases. The kinases are enzymes that don't work unless they're joined with cyclins. Once they become active, they set the events of the cell cycle in motion.

9. Cytokinesis: The cytoplasm divides to form two new cells. Animal cells are pinched in order for this to happen, and plant cells require of a cell plate to completely divide the cell.

10. Telophase: The cell is almost done dividing and starts to re-establish its normal structures. Chromosomes start to decondense. It is basically a premise of cytokinesis.

11. Anaphase: The sister chromatids separate from each other and are pulled toward opposite sides of the cell.

12. Metaphase: The spindle has collected all of the chromosomes and lined them up across the center of the cell, ready to be divided. Finally, there is a check where the cell makes sure that all of the chromosomes are lined correctly so they can be divided evenly.

13. Prophase: In early prophase, chromosomes start to condense, the mitotic spindle begins to form, and the nucleolus (where ribosomes are) dissapears. In late prophase, the chromosomes finish being condensed, the nuclear envelope breaks, and the mitotic spindle begins to collect chromosomes.

14. Interphase

14.1. G1 Phase: During this phase, the cell starts to grow, begin protein synthesis, and organelle duplication. The cell checks if the environment around it is suitable for cell division.The first checkpoint happens in this phase.

14.2. S Phase: In this cycle, DNA duplicates so each chromosome has two identical copies.

14.3. G2 Phase: The cell continues to grow in size and creates microtubules, which are necessary when separating the chromosome copies. The second checkpoint happens in this phase, and its purpose is to confirm that no errors happened after replication

15. Mitosis

16. How is the cell cycle regulated?

17. What happens when the cell cycle goes wrong?

17.1. Cells can sometimes overlook mistakes while dividing themselves, and this is caused due the overlooking of this discrepancy in one of the checkpoints. This causes the cell to uncontrollably divide without taking into consideration any of the checks. This is how cancer cells are formed.

18. HeLa cells

19. Mesothelioma (type of lung cancer)

20. Whole body: fatigue, loss of appetite, or night sweats

21. Gastrointestinal: bloating or nausea

22. Also common: coughing, shortness of breath, or weight loss

23. The immortal cells of Henrietta Lacks - Robin Bulleri