Exam 3 Immune System

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Exam 3 Immune System by Mind Map: Exam 3 Immune System

1. Specific Body Defenses

1.1. The Immune Response-3 Cells

1.1.1. Antibody-Mediated Immunity (B-cells)

1.1.1.1. Primary Immune Response

1.1.1.1.1. A. Antigen binds to a specific receptor on the surface of a B cell.

1.1.1.1.2. B. This stimulates the B cell to clone itself.

1.1.1.1.3. C. These become clone cells which then differentiate into plasma cells which maintain the specific cell-surface antigen binding sites as the B cells.

1.1.1.1.4. D. The plasma cells begin to secrete antibodies with the same antigen-binding properties as the B cells.

1.1.1.1.5. E.The antibodies then circulate through the blood and lymph and bind to the antigens causing their inactivation and the production of an antibody-antigen complex.

1.1.1.1.6. F. The antibody-antigen complex is then destroyed by other mechanisms such as with macrophages.

1.1.1.1.7. G. The cloned cells that do not differentiate into plasma cells, become long-lived memory cells that can mount an immediate response if they encounter the antigen again.

1.1.1.1.8. H. This all takes place in about 4-10 days and is known as the primary immune response.

1.1.1.2. Secondary Immune Response

1.1.1.2.1. A. Occurs when you are exposed again to the same antigen.

1.1.1.2.2. B. Called immunological memory

1.1.1.3. Antigen binds to a surface receptor (SR) on a B-Cell

1.1.1.3.1. B-Cell makes clones with the same Surface Receeptor

1.1.2. Cell-Mediated Immunity (T-cells)

1.1.2.1. Created in Bone marrow alongside B-Cells

1.1.2.2. Goes to thymus during pregnancy-puberty stage to mature

1.1.2.3. Travels the body and attacks infected cells or releases chemicals that stimulate the inflammatory response and attract macrophages to engulf infected cell

1.1.3. Macrophages

2. NonSpecific Body Defenses

2.1. Surface Membrane Barriers

2.1.1. Acidic secretions

2.1.1.1. inhibit bacterial growth

2.1.2. Lysozymes

2.1.2.1. bacteria destroying enzyme

2.1.3. Mucus

2.1.3.1. traps microorganisms

2.1.4. Ciliated Cells

2.1.4.1. sweep away bacteria laden mucus

2.1.5. Keratin

2.1.5.1. resistant to bacterial enzymes and toxins

2.1.6. Skin

2.1.6.1. Barrier made of dead skin cells that sheds to remove bacterial growth.

2.2. NonSpecific Cellular Defenses

2.2.1. Phagocytes

2.2.1.1. Macrophages

2.2.1.1.1. Found in nearly every body organ.

2.2.1.1.2. Wander throughout the tissue spaces and engulf cellular debris and foreign invaders.

2.2.1.2. Neutrophils

2.2.1.2.1. become phagocytotic upon contact with infectious material in the tissues

2.2.2. Natural Killer Cells

2.2.2.1. large granular lymphocytes that kill virus-infected and malignant cells within lymphoid tissue.

2.3. NonSpecific Chemical Defenses

2.3.1. Inflammatory Response

2.3.1.1. Body's second line of defense. Triggered when tissues are injured.

2.3.1.2. Prevents the spread of damaging agents to nearby tissues.

2.3.1.3. Disposes of cell debris and pathogens.

2.3.1.4. Sets the stage for the repair process.

2.3.2. Antimicrobbial Protiens

2.3.2.1. Complement system – proteins that lyse invading cells and help trigger the inflammatory response.

2.3.2.2. They circulate in the blood in an inactive state.

2.3.3. Interferons

2.3.3.1. Proteins secreted by cells that have been invaded by a virus.

2.3.3.2. They travel to adjacent cells and stimulate the production of proteins which help to slow or stop the spread of the virus to other cells.

2.3.4. Fever

2.3.4.1. Abnormally high body temperature.

2.3.4.2. Caused by the secretion of pyrogens by macrophages that have been exposed to bacteria and other foreign substances.

2.3.4.3. Higher temperature speeds up the chemical reactions of the healing processes.

2.3.4.4. Also, sequesters the supply of iron and zinc by the spleen and liver needed for bacterial multiplication.

3. Inflammatory Response

3.1. Injured Tissue

3.1.1. Release of inflammatory chemicals

3.1.1.1. Vasodilation

3.1.1.1.1. Blood flow to injured area

3.1.1.2. Capilary Permiability

3.1.1.2.1. Healing components flow into injured area

3.1.1.2.2. Phagocytes come and destroy pathogens