Transparency within Workers Rights

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Transparency within Workers Rights by Mind Map: Transparency within Workers Rights

1. Business Obligation? Or>

1.1. Creativity

1.1.1. Interactive maps.

1.2. Inspiration

1.2.1. Business's inspiring each other to change the way they view transparency and looking at it in a positive light.

1.3. Story Telling

1.3.1. Employees life stories, how the brand has helped them through employment.

1.4. Insight

1.4.1. Gives consumers more of an understanding.

1.5. Emotional Connections

1.5.1. Creates a personal experience.

1.6. Competitive Advantage

1.7. Oppurtunities

1.7.1. A job in the garment sector could be the first employment opportunity for many women in developing countries, an essential step toward financial independence and the start of a path out of poverty.

2. Fashion Revolution

2.1. 'Who Made My Clothes'

2.2. Global Movement calling for better transparency.

2.3. Wants consumers to think about the journey their clothes have taken, from the growing of plants, spinning them into fibres, mills creating fabric, and factories cutting and sewing garments (Fashion Revolution 2017).

2.4. What needs to change?

2.4.1. The model: In the past 20 - 30 years fashion production and consumption has been sped up dramatically. Along with this comes with many more factory disasters than we once would have in the past. The cost of making garments has increased yet clothes are cheaper than ever before, how does this work? It doesn't. Not for the people who make our clothes (Fashion Revolution 2017).

2.4.2. The material: People are consuming and throwing away clothing far too often! Americans throw out 14 million tonnes of clothing each year, and according to the Environmental Protection Agency 84% of this goes to landfill or an incinerator. Due to mass manufacturing artisans and heritage crafts are slowly disappearing. Garment production takes a huge toll on the environment too, our industry is the second biggest polluter in the world, only after the oil industry (Fashion Revolution 2017).

2.4.3. The mindset: We are buying more and spending less, we purchase 400% more clothing today than we did 2 decades ago. We should be buying less, buying better and valuing what we have (Fashion Revolution 2017).

2.5. We should be asking brands we buy 'who made my clothes?' "Some brands won’t answer at all. Some might tell you where your clothes were made but not who made them. Some will direct you to their Corporate Social responsibility Policy. That’s not good enough. Keeping asking until you get right down to the factory where your garment was made or even the name of the person who made it." (Fashion Revolution why do we need a fashion revolution 2017, para 7)

2.6. Fashion Revolution wants farmers, factory workers, artisans and makers to show us that #imadeyourclothes. They want to see their faces and hear their stories. They also want brands to show consumer who made their clothes. Transparency will help brands and consumers recognise the skilled workers and artisans in the fashion industries supply chain (Fashion Revolution 2017).

3. Industry Leaders

3.1. Everlane

3.1.1. Lists factory location where the specific product you are looking at is made, every product has a price break down. This lists what percent of the products price goes to what costs (Everlane 2017)

3.2. Patagonia

3.2.1. 'Foot Print Chronicles', shows their textile mills and factories. Always striving for better ways to do business, looking for processes and methods that reduce impact to the environment and the people in their supply chain (Patagonia 2017).

3.3. Marks and Spencer

3.3.1. Website includes an interactive map where you can trace their factories (Marks and Spencer 2017).

3.4. Honest Buy

3.4.1. Worlds first fully transparent company (Honest Buy 2017).

4. Consumers have a right to know what they are buying into

4.1. Are they happy to support a company who......

4.1.1. Do not pay a living wage?

4.1.2. Exploits their employees?

4.1.3. Provides unsafe work conditions?

4.1.4. Does not pay female workers maternity leave?

4.1.5. Does not provide clean water and fresh air?

4.2. Even if it isn't what we want to know, the truth should always be told. There is no way to move forward and change for the better if people don't know what is actually happening in the industry.

5. Bangladesh

5.1. 80% of the population is employed by the fashion industry (What She Makes Power and Poverty in the Fashion Industry, 2017).

5.1.1. The industry could be actively helping communities to get out of poverty.

5.2. In 2006, wages had dropped by 2.5 times since 1994. While cost of living increased by 200% (What She Makes Power and Poverty in the Fashion Industry, 2017).

5.2.1. It is virtually impossible to live.

5.3. Bangladesh accord on fire and safety.

5.3.1. 5 year independent, legally binding agreement between global brands, retailers and trade unions designed to build a safe and healthy Bangladeshi Ready Made Garment (RMG) Industry (Bangladesh Accord 2017).

5.4. Rana Plaza factory collapse killed over 1100 garment workers in 2013, this occurred from a building that wasn't built properly and too much weight from machinery (What She Makes Power and Poverty in the Fashion Industry, 2017).

5.4.1. Workers had made management aware of cracks starting to appear in the walls and floor but they were told to go back to work (Greenhouse Steven, 2017).

5.5. Industry can do good, since the arrival of the garment industry in the late 70's poverty has dropped from 70% to 40% (What She Makes Power and Poverty in the Fashion Industry, 2017).

5.5.1. Companies will contract from there due to high productivity and low overheads. But what about what THEY can do to actually create a positive impact?

6. Trust

6.1. Publishing supply chain information builds trust between workers, consumers, investors and labor advocates.

7. Living Wage

7.1. Wage that satisfies the bare minimum to survive.

7.1.1. Food, clean water, shelter, transportation, clothing, healthcare, education and savings. (What She Makes Power and Poverty in the Fashion Industry, 2017).

7.2. In China the average garment worker is paid more than a living wage (What She Makes Power and Poverty in the Fashion Industry, 2017).

7.2.1. Workers in Bangladesh, Vietnam and Indonesia are only paid a quarter to half of a living wage. (What She Makes Power and Poverty in the Fashion Industry, 2017).

7.3. Minimum wage does not mean a living wage.

7.3.1. Governments don't want to increase minimum wage because it may result in companies taking their business somewhere else which pays workers less.

7.4. Deloitte estimates that in Australia consumers would have to pay just 1% more per piece of clothing to ensure workers are being paid a living wage (What She Makes Power and Poverty in the Fashion Industry, 2017).

7.4.1. Factories want to remain competitive and attract foreign investment.

8. Governments

8.1. Aus government can legislate to make it mandatory for large companies to report on how they deal with human rights risks in their supply chain. Penalties should also be put in place for companies that refuse to report or take action (What She Makes Power and Poverty in the Fashion Industry, 2017).

8.2. Adopt policies addressing the negative consequences of business. It is foremost the responsibility of governments to ensure that legal minimum wages are set at liveable and fair levels within their country (What She Makes Power and Poverty in the Fashion Industry, 2017).

9. Garment Manufacturers

9.1. Creating millions of jobs is a positive thing, however manufacturers need to acknowledge that the current wage system needs to change. This can help poverty alleviation. Paying a living wage encourages workers to create a better life for themselves, improves their health and also increases productivity.

9.2. Trust between workers and managers creates a foundation for developing relationships.

10. Unions

10.1. Must protect members, and provide them with a voice. They are fundamental organisations to improving labour conditions (What She Makes Power and Poverty in the Fashion Industry, 2017).

10.2. Unions need to continue organising education and training programs on rights of work, This will help to raise awareness of basic labour rights and obligations, and to address unfair labour practices. Some workers don't even know what they're entitled to (What She Makes Power and Poverty in the Fashion Industry, 2017).

11. People Power

11.1. Brands listen when everyday Aussie's speak up! After the Rana Plaza collapse we demanded that something be done and almost all the largest garment retailers in Australia joined the ground-breaking Bangladesh Fire and Building Safety Accord (What She Makes Power and Poverty in the Fashion Industry, 2017).

11.2. DO NOT boycott brands, this could result in job loses. Instead reach out to your favourite brands and ask questions! (What She Makes Power and Poverty in the Fashion Industry, 2017).

11.3. Garments jobs are important in many developing countries, but people should be paid fairly and enough to live a basic life. We need to tell brands this.

12. What does Transparency mean? (Fashion Revolution 2017).

12.1. Fair trade

12.2. Well being

12.3. Living wages

12.4. Empowerment

12.5. Gender equality

12.6. Business accountability

12.7. Sustainable livelihood

12.8. Good working conditions

12.9. Environmental sustainability

13. Fashion Transparency Index

13.1. Fashion Revolution (2017) reviews and ranks 100 of the largest global fashion brands. Results are based on how much information they disclose on their suppliers, supply chain practices and polices, and environmental and social impacts.

13.2. Fashion Revolution (2017) use five key areas to rate brands. Policy and commitment, governance, traceability, supplier assessment and remediation and spotlight issues.

13.3. Fashion Revolution's (2017) 2017 report focuses solely on brands public disclosure of supply chain information. A rating of 0 isn't always negative, it means the brand doesn't publicly share the information.

13.4. Fashion Revolution (2017) chooses brands based on three factors: Annual turnover of over $1.2 billion USD, agreed to be included, and represents a cross section of market segments across Europe, North America, South America and Asia.

13.5. Fashion Revolution (2017) states that 41 - 50% ratings mean brands are publishing more detailed supplier lists, some will be publishing processing facilities, detailed information about their policies, procedures, social and environmental goals, supplier assessment and remediation processes, general assessment and findings. These brands are also more likely to be acknowledging issues on living wages, collective bargaining and resources.

13.6. Fashion Revolution (2017) found the highest achievers to be the following: Adidas 49 , Reebok 49, Marks & Spencer 48 , H&M 48, Puma 46 , Banana Republic 46 , Gap 46, Old Navy 46.

14. Raw Materials and Garment Production

14.1. Where were they made?

14.1.1. Farms, textile mills, factories.

14.2. Who made them?

14.2.1. Peoples stories, personalities and history.

14.3. Under what conditions?

14.3.1. Hours of work, physical conditions of workplace, breaks, access to water.

14.4. Unauthorised Sub Contracting

14.4.1. No responsibility for brand.

14.4.2. Hard to know where products are made.

14.5. 'Know and Show.'

14.5.1. United Nations Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights, businesses should “know and show” that they are respecting human rights in their supply chain (United Nations Global Compact 2017).

15. Industrial Revolutions

15.1. Developing countries are currently in V1 (The Coming of the Age of Industry, 2017).

15.1.1. This comes with management styles which do not have workers interests in mind (The Coming of the Age of Industry, 2017).

15.2. Treating workers like they did in England in the 1700's (The Coming of the Age of Industry, 2017).

15.2.1. Child labour found frequently (The Coming of the Age of Industry, 2017).

15.3. Treat workers like they are lazy and untrustworthy (The Coming of the Age of Industry, 2017).

15.3.1. Locking them in work rooms, not letting them use bathroom facilities or drink or eat. Mentality that all workers are replaceable and there is always someone willing to take their job (The Coming of the Age of Industry, 2017).

15.4. Competing for contracts.

15.4.1. Therefore lowering wages so companies will want to produce with them because they are cheaper (The Coming of the Age of Industry, 2017).

16. Apparel and Footwear Supply Chain Transparency Pledge

16.1. Sets a minimum standard of transparency.

16.2. At the end of 2016, 29 companies had published some information (Ashley Westerman 2017).

16.3. In 2016, a 9 member coalition came together to endorse the pledge (Westerman Ashley 2017).

16.3.1. Human Rights Watch: Defends the rights of people worldwide. Investigate abuses, expose the facts widely, and pressure those with power to respect rights and secure justice for those who have been wronged (Human Rights Watch 2017).

16.3.2. Clean Clothes Campaign: Global alliance dedicated to improving working conditions and empowering workers in the global garment and sportswear industries (Clean Clothes Campaign 2017).

16.3.3. The Maquila Solidarity Network: A labour and women’s rights organization that supports the efforts of workers in global supply chains to win improved wages and working conditions and greater respect for their rights (Maquila Solidarity Network 2017).

16.3.4. International Labor Rights Forum: Holds global corporations accountable for labor rights violations in their supply chains. Implements advanced policies and laws that protect workers. This strengthen's workers’ ability to advocate for their rights (Labor Rights 2017).

16.4. Claims of commercial disadvantages.

16.4.1. No proof of this, brands who are transparent claim it benefits their company. Consumers see this as positive and therefore potentially may shift from buying one brand to another due to trust.

17. China

17.1. The garment industry has been growing in China for decades which means the workers are now skilled and demand higher wages. This has resulted in many companies moving their offshore production to more developing countries such as Bangladesh, Vietnam and Cambodia. The workers in these countries are not as skilled as China therefore the companies can justify to pay them less (Parry Simon, 2016).

18. Cambodia

18.1. Garments industry employees mainly females between 18 - 22 years of age.

18.1.1. Most move from rural areas to the city to work, leaving their children in their home town with family members.

18.2. Garment industry makes up 80% total exports.

18.2.1. Workers create capital appeal but do not see any of the money the industry is making. It only goes to the top!

18.3. Workers cannot afford high calorie food, therefore are malnourished and faint often.

18.3.1. Combine this with extreme working hours, and poor conditions, it obviously isn't going to end well.

18.4. Workers will borrow money with high interest just to get by, and there is a very small chance that the cycle of poverty will ever be broken.

19. Brands

19.1. Must take responsibility for poverty wages in their supply chains. The UN makes this clear, no excuses to say the manufacturing country allows it! Paying a living wage is clearly set out as a human right in the United Nations Universal Declaration What She Makes Power and Poverty in the Fashion Industry, 2017).

19.2. UN notes that businesses must ensure rights are being upheld, even in countries where governments are not doing this themselves What She Makes Power and Poverty in the Fashion Industry, 2017).

19.3. Help facilitate transparent discussion between workers and management to create steps towards a living wage What She Makes Power and Poverty in the Fashion Industry, 2017).

19.4. Recognise that purchasing practises and pricing policies have an impact on wages. Freight on board cost should include paying living wages What She Makes Power and Poverty in the Fashion Industry, 2017).

20. Cotton Pickers

20.1. Workers can develop health issues caused by exposure to fertilisers in the cotton fields. These can be chronic or short term (Khuda Bakhsh, 2016.)

20.1.1. Chronic: Asthma, shortness of breathing, abdominal pain and sleeplessness (Khuda Bakhsh, 2016.)

20.1.2. Short term: headache, vomiting, dizziness, eye irritation and skin infections (Khuda Bakhsh, 2016.)

20.2. In Pakistan cotton picking is done solely by women, from predominantly low socio economic areas. This means that young girls are leaving school and starting to work young to provide income for the family (Khuda Bakhsh, 2016.)

20.2.1. By not going to school and getting an education some of the girls cannot read, therefore they do not even know that pesticides and fertilisers are dangerous to them (Khuda Bakhsh, 2016.)

21. Sand Blasters

21.1. Blasting abrasive sand under high pressure to create a worn look on denim fabric. Most of this work if done manually. Other techniques are hand sanding, stone washing and chemical treatments (Breathless for Blue Jeans Health Hazards in China’s Denim Factories).

21.1.1. All manual practices are damaging workers hands, repeating the same movements for hours and hours at a time causes damage and puts the worker in pain (Breathless for Blue Jeans Health Hazards in China’s Denim Factories).

21.2. Almost a decade ago Turkish doctors highlighted the fact that denim production workers were forming silicosis (lung fibrosis caused by the inhalation of dust containing silica.) (Breathless for Blue Jeans Health Hazards in China’s Denim Factories).

21.2.1. From this a global campaign to end sandblasting was created, led by the Clean Clothes Campaign. Over 40 brands promised to ban it, but the practice continues (Breathless for Blue Jeans Health Hazards in China’s Denim Factories).

21.3. Manual - worker operates a gun attached to a hose and compressor from which the sand is blasted under high pressure (Breathless for Blue Jeans Health Hazards in China’s Denim Factories).

21.3.1. Workers in China reported they often have black saliva from the sand particles (Breathless for Blue Jeans Health Hazards in China’s Denim Factories).

21.4. Mechanical - performed inside blasting cabinets. Particles of sand can still escape the unit (Breathless for Blue Jeans Health Hazards in China’s Denim Factories).

21.5. 500 - 600 pairs of jeans a day for an experienced sand blaster (Breathless for Blue Jeans Health Hazards in China’s Denim Factories).