LANGUAGE AND COMMUNITIES

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LANGUAGE AND COMMUNITIES by Mind Map: LANGUAGE AND COMMUNITIES

1. VARIETIES

2. LANGUAGE

2.1. Some unitary system of linguistic communication which subsumes number of mutually intelligible varieties

2.1.1. What distinguish certain language from others (Criterions)

2.1.1.1. Standarization

2.1.1.1.1. Codification of language

2.1.1.2. Vitality

2.1.1.2.1. Existence of a living community of speakers

2.1.1.2.2. Distinguishes languages that are "alive" from those that are "dead"

2.1.1.3. Hitoricity

2.1.1.3.1. Group of people that finds a sense of identity through using a particular language

2.1.1.4. Authonomy

2.1.1.4.1. A language must be felt by its speakers to be different from other languages

2.1.1.5. Reduction

2.1.1.5.1. A particular variety may be regarded a a sub-variety rather than an undependent entity

2.1.1.6. Mixture

2.1.1.6.1. The feeling speakers have about the purity of the variety they speak

2.1.1.7. De facto norms

2.1.1.7.1. Means focusing on one particular sub-variety a representing the best usage

3. DIALECT

3.1. Form of speaking a language in a group of people (community)

3.1.1. A local variety of a real language

3.2. Used

3.2.1. local varieties of English

3.2.1.1. Yorkshire dialect

3.2.2.  Informal  Lower-class  Rural speech

4. To this is called

5. Each language exits in a number of varieties

6. Set of linguistic items or human speech pattern

7. LANGUAGE AND DIALECT

8. Relationship

8.1. Power

8.1.1. requires asymmetrical relationship between entities

8.1.1.1.  Status  Money  Influence

8.1.1.1.1. A language has more power than any of its dialect

8.2. Solidarity

8.2.1. Feeling of equality between people

8.2.1.1. can lead a group to conserve a local dialect

8.2.1.1.1.  Modernization of Hebrew  Separation of Herbo-Croatian  Local dialect

9. Diferences

9.1. Language refers to a single linguistic norm or a group of related norms, and dialect refers just to one of the norms

9.2. China speak diferent language (Catonee and Mandarin)

9.2.1. They don't understand themselves oraly, but written

9.2.2. They speak different dialects of Chinese, not different language

9.3. Language is bigger than dialect or variety

9.3.1. Process of divergence and convergence

9.3.1.1. Language and dialect differences become further obscured

9.3.1.1.1. Many speakers are also likely to be multilingual

10. Language and dialect situation

10.1. Border between the Netherland and Germany

10.1.1. There was a continuum of dialects of language ( historically)

10.1.1.1. They are not mutually intelligible