Spanish Grammar

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Spanish Grammar by Mind Map: Spanish Grammar

1. Mandates

1.1. Informal

1.1.1. tu

1.1.1.1. Affirmative

1.1.1.1.1. Use 3rd person singular

1.1.1.1.2. irregulars

1.1.1.1.3. Take 1st person singular, remove "o," add opposite vowel (ar - e, er/ir - a)

1.1.1.2. Negative

1.1.1.2.1. Use 1st person singular, remove "o," add "as" (if er/ir verb) or "es" (if ar verb)

1.1.1.2.2. irregulars

1.2. Formal

1.2.1. Ud./Uds.

1.2.1.1. Conjugated just like subjunctive, but only includes el and ellos (a and an)

2. Pronouns

2.1. Subject

2.1.1. yo,tú,él/ella/usd.,nosotros, vosotros,ellos/as/uds.

2.2. Direct Object

2.2.1. me,te,lo/la,nos,os,los/las

2.3. Indirect Object

2.3.1. me,te,le,nos,os,les

2.4. Reflexive Verb

2.4.1. me,te,se,nos,os,se

2.4.2. Reciporacle (each other - only in plural)

2.4.2.1. i.e. we hug each other (ellos se abrazan)

2.5. Relative Pronouns

2.5.1. que (that/which/who)

2.5.1.1. Cosas

2.5.1.2. Personas

2.5.2. quien(es) (who/whom/that)

2.5.2.1. Personas con condiciones:

2.5.2.1.1. If w/ oxford comma

2.5.2.1.2. Preposición (a/de)

2.5.2.2. de quien = whose

2.5.3. lo que (that which/what)

3. Los usos

3.1. Las cláusulas sustantivas (noun clauses) [Indicative] + que + [subjunctive/indicative]. Second vowel is only subjunctive if first vowel is "duda," influencia, o emocion (trigger verbs)

3.1.1. Indicative

3.1.1.1. Present

3.1.1.1.1. Conjugation

3.1.1.1.2. Irregularities

3.1.1.2. Past

3.1.1.2.1. Use imperfect for description, repetition, and background. Preterite for all else (completed events)

3.1.1.2.2. Preterite

3.1.1.2.3. Imperfect

3.1.1.3. Future

3.1.1.3.1. Conjugation

3.1.1.3.2. Irregularities

3.1.2. Subjunctive

3.1.2.1. Present/Future

3.1.2.1.1. 1st person singular + opposite vowel; car/gar/zar, boot verbs + IR change in nosotros/vosotros; DISHES

3.1.2.2. Present Perfect

3.1.2.3. Imperfect

3.1.2.4. Pluperfect

3.1.2.5. Talking about someone else's actions imagined/wishes possible

3.1.2.6. Pg. 135: Verbs and Expressions of will and influence Flashcards | Quizlet for some words which trigger the subjunctive mood

3.1.2.7. Expressions that signify subjunctive

3.1.2.7.1. Ojalá: hopefully, quizas, tal vez

3.1.2.7.2. Signify Indicative: a lo mejor

3.1.3. Creer/pensar: affirmative = indicative, negative/question = subjunctive

3.1.4. "que tú me des tu dinero" = phrase that acts as a noun

3.1.5. Irregular: "Si no... [infinitive]"

3.1.6. Decir/Escribir

3.1.6.1. Inform: Indicative

3.1.6.1.1. I tell you it's cold out

3.1.6.2. Influence: Subjunctive

3.1.6.2.1. I tell you to study

3.1.7. Impersonal expressions: es...[]....que....

3.1.7.1. Indicative: es... (following) unless it's negative (in which case it would be subjunctive)

3.1.7.1.1. verdad

3.1.7.1.2. claro

3.1.7.1.3. seguro

3.1.7.1.4. evidente

3.1.7.1.5. obrio

3.1.7.1.6. cierto

3.1.7.2. subjunctive: es [anything else]

3.2. Las cláusulas relativas/adjectivales

3.3. Las cláusulas adverbiales

3.4. Otros Usos

4. POR VS. PARA

4.1. Para

4.1.1. Destination (toward; in the direction of)

4.1.2. Deadline or a specific time in the future (by; for)

4.1.3. Goal (in order to)

4.1.4. Purpose (for; used for)

4.1.5. Recipient (for)

4.1.6. Comparison with others or opinion (for; considering)

4.2. Por

4.2.1. Motion or a general location (along; through; around; by)

4.2.2. Duration of an action (for; during; in)

4.2.3. Reason or motive (because of; on account of; on behalf of)

4.2.4. Object of a search (for; in search of)

4.2.5. Means by which (by)

4.2.6. Exchange or substitution (in exchange for)

4.2.7. Unit of measure (per)

4.2.8. Means (by)