Spanish Grammar

Get Started. It's Free
or sign up with your email address
Rocket clouds
Spanish Grammar by Mind Map: Spanish Grammar

1. Mandates

1.1. Informal

1.1.1. tu Affirmative Use 3rd person singular irregulars Take 1st person singular, remove "o," add opposite vowel (ar - e, er/ir - a) Negative Use 1st person singular, remove "o," add "as" (if er/ir verb) or "es" (if ar verb) irregulars

1.2. Formal

1.2.1. Ud./Uds. Conjugated just like subjunctive, but only includes el and ellos (a and an)

2. Pronouns

2.1. Subject

2.1.1. yo,tú,él/ella/usd.,nosotros, vosotros,ellos/as/uds.

2.2. Direct Object

2.2.1. me,te,lo/la,nos,os,los/las

2.3. Indirect Object

2.3.1. me,te,le,nos,os,les

2.4. Reflexive Verb

2.4.1. me,te,se,nos,os,se

2.4.2. Reciporacle (each other - only in plural) i.e. we hug each other (ellos se abrazan)

2.5. Relative Pronouns

2.5.1. que (that/which/who) Cosas Personas

2.5.2. quien(es) (who/whom/that) Personas con condiciones: If w/ oxford comma Preposición (a/de) de quien = whose

2.5.3. lo que (that which/what)

3. Los usos

3.1. Las cláusulas sustantivas (noun clauses) [Indicative] + que + [subjunctive/indicative]. Second vowel is only subjunctive if first vowel is "duda," influencia, o emocion (trigger verbs)

3.1.1. Indicative Present Conjugation Irregularities Past Use imperfect for description, repetition, and background. Preterite for all else (completed events) Preterite Imperfect Future Conjugation Irregularities

3.1.2. Subjunctive Present/Future 1st person singular + opposite vowel; car/gar/zar, boot verbs + IR change in nosotros/vosotros; DISHES Present Perfect Imperfect Pluperfect Talking about someone else's actions imagined/wishes possible Pg. 135: Verbs and Expressions of will and influence Flashcards | Quizlet for some words which trigger the subjunctive mood Expressions that signify subjunctive Ojalá: hopefully, quizas, tal vez Signify Indicative: a lo mejor

3.1.3. Creer/pensar: affirmative = indicative, negative/question = subjunctive

3.1.4. "que tú me des tu dinero" = phrase that acts as a noun

3.1.5. Irregular: "Si no... [infinitive]"

3.1.6. Decir/Escribir Inform: Indicative I tell you it's cold out Influence: Subjunctive I tell you to study

3.1.7. Impersonal expressions: es...[]....que.... Indicative: es... (following) unless it's negative (in which case it would be subjunctive) verdad claro seguro evidente obrio cierto subjunctive: es [anything else]

3.2. Las cláusulas relativas/adjectivales

3.3. Las cláusulas adverbiales

3.4. Otros Usos


4.1. Para

4.1.1. Destination (toward; in the direction of)

4.1.2. Deadline or a specific time in the future (by; for)

4.1.3. Goal (in order to)

4.1.4. Purpose (for; used for)

4.1.5. Recipient (for)

4.1.6. Comparison with others or opinion (for; considering)

4.2. Por

4.2.1. Motion or a general location (along; through; around; by)

4.2.2. Duration of an action (for; during; in)

4.2.3. Reason or motive (because of; on account of; on behalf of)

4.2.4. Object of a search (for; in search of)

4.2.5. Means by which (by)

4.2.6. Exchange or substitution (in exchange for)

4.2.7. Unit of measure (per)

4.2.8. Means (by)