Biomedical Chemistry Section A

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Biomedical Chemistry Section A by Mind Map: Biomedical Chemistry Section A

1. Atoms

1.1. Bonding Types

1.1.1. Covalent Bonding

1.1.2. Ionic Bonding

1.2. Electronic Configuration

1.2.1. Electronegativity

1.2.2. Electrons

1.2.2.1. Core Electrons

1.2.2.2. Valence Electrons

1.2.2.3. Electron Shells

1.2.2.3.1. Orbitals

2. Lewis Structures

2.1. Formal Charges

2.1.1. Resonance Structures

2.1.2. Resonance Hybrids

3. Geometry

3.1. Parent Geometry

3.2. Molecular Geometry

3.2.1. Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion

4. Acids & Bases

4.1. Definitions

4.1.1. Bronsted-Lowry

4.1.2. Lewis

4.1.3. Arrhenius

4.2. Amphiprotic Species

4.3. Conjugate Acid Base Pairs

4.4. Strong & Weak Acids/Bases

4.5. Scales

4.5.1. pOH

4.5.2. pH

4.6. Buffer Solutions

4.6.1. Henderson Hasslebach Equation

5. Functional Groups

5.1. Hydrocarbons

5.1.1. Alkanes

5.1.2. Alkenes

5.1.3. Alkynes

5.1.4. Aromatics

5.2. Alcohols

5.3. Ether

5.4. Ketone

5.5. Aldehyde

5.6. Ester

5.7. Carboxylic Acid

5.8. Amine

5.9. Amide

6. Isomers

6.1. Constitutional Isomers

6.2. Stereoisomers

6.2.1. Cis- Trans Isomers

6.2.2. E- Z isomers

6.2.3. Enantiomer

6.2.3.1. Chiral

6.2.3.1.1. Chiral Centre

6.2.4. maximum of 2^n stereoisomers

6.2.5. Diastereoisomers

6.2.6. Mesocompound

6.2.6.1. Achiral

7. Carbohydrates

7.1. Polyhydroxyaldehyde or polyhydroxyketone

7.2. Monosaccharides

7.2.1. Fischer Projection

7.2.1.1. D configuration

7.2.1.1.1. R confirmation

7.2.1.2. L configuration

7.2.1.2.1. S confirmation

7.2.2. Aldose

7.2.3. Ketose

7.2.4. Anomeric Carbon

7.2.4.1. Hemiacetal Group

7.2.4.2. Reducing Sugars / Non-Reducing Sugars

7.2.5. Anomers

7.2.5.1. alpha anomer

7.2.5.2. beta anomer

7.2.6. Reactions

7.2.6.1. Glycoside Bonding

7.2.6.1.1. Glycoside

7.2.6.1.2. N-Glycoside

7.2.7. Mutarotations

7.2.7.1. alpha anomer

7.2.7.2. beta monomer

7.2.8. Haworth Projection

7.2.8.1. Five membered rings

7.2.8.1.1. furan-

7.2.8.2. Six membered rings

7.2.8.2.1. pyran-

7.2.8.2.2. Chair Confirmation

7.3. Polysaccharides

7.3.1. Starch

7.3.1.1. Amylose

7.3.1.2. Amylopectin

7.3.2. Glycogen

7.3.3. Cellulose

8. Lipids

8.1. Triglycerides

8.1.1. Classed as Ester

8.1.2. Rich with unsaturated fatty acids liquids are room temperature

8.1.3. Rich with saturated fatty acids solids are room temperature

8.1.4. Composed of

8.1.4.1. Glycerol

8.1.4.2. Fatty Acids x3

8.1.4.2.1. Unbranched hydrocarbon chains

8.1.4.2.2. Saturated

8.1.4.2.3. Unsaturated

8.1.5. Natural Soaps and detergents

8.1.5.1. Saponification

8.1.5.1.1. Ester Hydrolysis Reaction

8.1.5.1.2. Catalysed by NaOH and Heat

8.1.5.2. Naturally form micelles

8.2. Phospholipids

8.2.1. Mostly derived from phosphatidic acid

8.2.2. Composed of

8.2.2.1. Fatty Acids x2

8.2.2.2. Phosphoric Acid

8.2.2.3. Further esterification with low class alcohol

8.2.3. Self assemble bilayer in aqueous solution

8.2.3.1. Fluid Mosaic Model

8.2.4. Hydrophobic tail

8.2.5. Hydrophilic head

8.3. Steroids

8.3.1. Tetracyclic ring structure

8.3.2. Derived from cholesterol

9. Amino Acids

9.1. Composed of

9.1.1. Amino group

9.1.2. Carboxyl group

9.1.3. Side chain

9.1.3.1. Decide properties of amino acids

9.2. Chiral

9.2.1. Exception of glycine

9.2.2. amino group on left

9.2.2.1. L- amino acid

9.2.3. amino group on right

9.2.3.1. D- amino acid

9.3. Zwitterion

9.3.1. Form in which amino acid is at its pI

9.4. Isoelectric Point

9.4.1. Net charge zero

9.5. Electrophoresis

9.5.1. pH<pI

9.5.1.1. net positive charge

9.5.1.1.1. negative electrode (cathode)

9.5.2. pH>pI

9.5.2.1. net negative charge

9.5.2.1.1. positive electrode (anode)

9.6. Peptide

9.6.1. polymer of amino acids in a chain

9.6.2. written from the N terminal to C terminal

9.6.3. Experimental sequencing

9.6.3.1. cyanogen bromide

9.6.3.2. Enzyme catalysis

9.6.3.2.1. trypsin

9.6.3.2.2. chymotrypsin

9.6.3.3. Edman degradation

9.7. Protein

9.7.1. primary strucutre

9.7.2. secondary structure

9.7.2.1. alpha helix

9.7.2.2. beta pleated sheet

9.7.2.2.1. anitparallel

9.7.2.2.2. parallel

9.7.3. tertiary structure

9.7.4. quaternary structure