VCE Physical Education Unit 1 Outcome 1b Performance Enhancement Project Shann...

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VCE Physical Education Unit 1 Outcome 1b Performance Enhancement Project Shannon Chhour by Mind Map: VCE Physical Education Unit 1 Outcome 1b Performance Enhancement  Project                   Shannon Chhour

1. Specialised sports food: they cover an athletes nutritional needs and include sports drinks and sports bars or gels. They are convenient and practical to incorporate into any training program, and many athletes use this in addition to their specialised nutrition program.

2. PART A

3. 1. What are the legal practices that enhance performance?

4. The legal practices that enhance performance are training methods and nutritional supplements. Methods of training that can specifically enhance performance of the musculoskeletal system are anaerobic training (resistance training, plyometric training and short/medium/high intensity interval training to develop strength, power and speed) and aerobic training methods (continuous training, fartlek, long interval training for endurance).

5. Resistance training involves exercising the muscles against a resistance. It is the most common training method used to increase strength, power and endurance. Physiological effects include increased muscle size, mass and fuel source and increased bone density and strength. Potential harms of resistance training include over training (not allows enough rest between sessions), injury (placing stress of the muscles and bones from incorrect technique or heavy weights). Resistance training involve the use of free weights, machine weights and body weight in correlation with the different muscle contractions (concentric, eccentric, isokinetic, Isoinertial and static). Some mechanical aids include tyres, parachutes, elastic cords and weighted vests. Examples of resistance training include planks and bench presses).

6. Plyometric training involves first stretching a muscle then contracting it in the shortest time possible to increase muscular power. This method of training allows the athlete to produce more explosive power when running, jumping, kicking and throwing. A major potential harm is tearing of muscle through incorrect and inadequate fitness and/or recovery. This method of training places considerable stress on the body and joints and is recommended for people of high fitness levels. People should start with low-impact activities then progress higher. Examples of plyometric training include skipping and clap push ups).

7. Interval Training involves sets periods of work followed by set periods of rest/recovery repeated several times in a session. This training allows an athlete to improve speed, power, anaerobic capacity and agility. This method of training can be used to develop the 3 energy systems, depending on the amount of work and rest. Interval training comprises of short, intermediate and high intensities. Short and intermediate allows the athlete to improve at the muscle level by allowing them to run faster through improvement of speed, anaerobic capacity and power. This is useful for team sports where the work to rest ratio can replicate that of a game situation, where there is an intense burst followed by periods of rest. High intensity interval training (HIIT) involves repeated periods of high intensity efforts followed by long periods of complete rest or recovery at a lower intensity. Potential harms of interval training include risk of injury due to inadequate fitness ability and incorrect of use of training principles. An example of short intensity training include 100m sprints, an example of intermediate intensity training include 200m sprints, and an example of high intensity training is a combination.

8. Aerobic training produces a variety of chronic muscular adaptations to enhance performance. These allow for greater energy production; however the main factor is improvement of efficient delivery of oxygen to the muscles. Continuous training lasts at least 20 minutes at around 80% intensity, examples include running and swimming. Fartlek training involves surges of high intensity throughout the session, an example includes running up a hill. Long interval training lasts between 1-6 minutes at around 85% intensity and rest periods of lower intensity or passive rest, an example includes middle distance running.

9. Nutritional supplements have been developed for athletes to gain an edge over other competitors, however most do not have any scientific credibility and the long term affects are still unknown. Any of these supplements may also carry a drug or doping risk. However, nutritional supplements may have some part in helping the athlete to reach their best performance.

10. Dietary supplements: This is done in the belief that an athlete should not require supplements (provided that they have a good diet and they address their daily energy intake), and that supplements may only be used when there is a deficiency. Some examples are calcium and iron for female athletes.

11. Performance supplements: These benefit performance and/or recovery from the exercise. There have been some cases that have been supported by scientific research, such as the use of caffeine and creatine

12. Carbohydrates are the major fuel source required for activities of high intensity. The body can only store a certain amount, so it is important that the athlete has an adequate supply.

13. Carbohydrate loading is usually used by athletes who compete in events lasting longer than 90 minutes. Additional carbohydrates are consumed prior to the event to increase stores by 50-100% about normal resting levels. Consumption of around 10 grams of carbohydrates per kilogram of body mass, in conjunction of tapering for 36-72 hours prior to the event is usually the most effective method. It is also recommended that the athletes consume small amounts of carbohydrates during the event to delay the depletion of stores. The benefit of carbohydrate loading is that they are able to exercise that their optimal rate for a longer period of time. This method does not work for all athletes and potential harms include bloating and weight gain.

14. Anaerobic Training

15. Sports gels and bars are fortified foods containing a mix of carbohydrates and protein to provide a large fuel boost in one serve. A concern is that these are used as replacements to traditional meals, and that these should be tested by the individual athletes prior to the competition.

16. Liquid meal supplements usually contain carbohydrates, protein, fat powder which can be mixed with milk or water. These are used to increase lean body mass and are useful for post-exercise recovery A concern is that they are overused and are used as a replacement for traditional meals, which creates unwanted weight gain.

17. Hydration is key for an athlete to maintain or enhance their performance. Some fluids provide fuel, whereas all fluid rehydrate the athlete. Hydration helps the musculoskeletal system to perform at an optimal rate and reduce the rate of fatigue. Dehydration occurs through the loss of water and electrolytes, which interferes with the muscles ability to contract.

18. Sports drinks (carbohydrate-electrolyte drinks) provide fluid and carbohydrates, this allows an athlete to rehydrate and refuel at the same time. These drinks are ideal to consume at any time around the activity. Concerns with these drinks include overconsumption and the additional carbohydrates which impact the energy balance and displacement of other nutrients.

19. Isotonic: used by most athletes

20. Hypotonic: used by athletes that require fluid without carbohydrates, to restrict weight gain

21. Hypertonic: used by athletes that perform prolonged endurance events/ultra distance events.

22. Vitamins (assist chemical reactions in the body) and minerals (important in muscle contraction, nerve transmission, fluid balance and enzyme activity) are very important in an athletes diet. Supplements may be used to prevent or treat a deficiency (when a normal diet cannot suffice). There has shown effect on performance enhancement if there is no deficiency.

23. Calcium is vital for muscle contraction, nerve transmission, enzyme activity and blood clotting. Low calcium may lead to low bone-mineral density and risk of stress fractures. Calcium supplements are recommended for athletes who may require more or who are at risk of not consuming enough, it is recommended under medical supervision.

24. Protein helps with the growth and repair of muscle tissue and cells, and therefore is a popular nutritional supplement used by athletes.

25. Protein powder is the most common form of protein supplements, they can be turned into shakes and bars. Whey protein is the most common form as it is quickly digested and rich in branched amino acids.

26. Whey protein isolate: highest amount of protein with all lactose and fat removed.

27. Whey protein concentrate: high amount of protein with small amounts of lactose and fat present.

28. Whey protein hydrolysate: a combination of the other forms.

29. Protein supplements have been shown to not have an effect of building more muscle mass, but can be useful for post-exercise replenishment. On the other hand, too much protein can displace other important nutrients.

30. Caffeine is used by some athletes to enhance their performance. It was removed from the WADA prohibited list in 2004. Caffeine can be shown to improve performance in:

31. Short duration, high intensity events of 1-5 minutes

32. Prolonged high intensity events of 20-60 minutes

33. Endurance events of a minimum of 90 minutes

34. Prolonged intermittent, high intensity team or racquet sports

35. The reason for enhancement is unclear, however it is thought to be linked to the decreased perception of effort and fatigue in an athlete, by stimulating the release of adrenalin.

36. Creatine is created through the daily intake in foods such as fish and red meat, and is also formed in the kidneys through the intake of some amino acids. The use of creatine phosphate in the regeneration of ATP is well known. It is agreed that creatine supplementation will enhance performance regarding repeated sprints or bouts of high-intensity, short duration activities. There are two recognised creatine supplementation regimes used, they are:

37. Rapid loading protocol: 20 grams daily (4 X 5 gram doses) for a total of five days. This protocol is linked to weight gain, usually in the form of fluid retention.

38. Slow loading protocol: 3 grams daily, it is also suggested to take large amounts of carbohydrates.

39. Creatine has not been shown to have any side-affects, however there are stories of weight gain, cramps and damage to the liver and kidney.

40. Bicarbonate increases the body’s ability to dispose of excess hydrogen ions that are produced during anaerobic glycolysis. Hydrogen ions are thought to have a fatiguing affect on the body, bicarbonate loading acts as a buffer within the muscle to reduce the fatiguing effect of hydrogen on the muscle. Bicarbonate can be consumed as a capsule or effervescent powder. There are two recommended protocols for the ingestion of bicarbonate, they are:

41. Acute bicarbonate loading: 300 milligrams per kilogram BM dose ingested 1-2 hours prior to the session.

42. Chronic bicarbonate loading: 500 milligrams per kilogram BM dose ingested per day over five days and split into 4 doses over the day

43. A side effect has been noted as gastrointestinal distress. It is recommended that athletes do not mix this combination with any other nutritional supplements.

44. 2. What are the illegal practices that enhance performance?

45. The use of illegal substances or methods, also known as ‘doping’, is an illegal practise and a major issue because they artificially enhance the performance of an athlete, are potentially harmful to the health of an athlete and are contrary to the spirit of sport. Some cases include the alleged drug use of the Essendon Football Club (AFL) and the Cronulla Sharks (NRL), Tyson Gay (athletics), Justin Gatlin (athletics) and Lance Armstrong (cycling).

46. Many athletes practise several performance-enhancing methods and substances to help improve their performance. These improve their performance by influencing the physiological capacity of a body system, removing physiological constraints and increasing the speed of recovery. The performance-enhancing techniques can be categorised as mechanical (Devices: eg. Weights, heartrate monitors, footwear), nutritional (Food sources: eg. Sports drinks), pharmacological (Synthetically produced drugs: eg. Beta blockers), physiological (Practises and use of naturally occurring products: eg. Blood doping) or psychological (eg. Meditations, music).

47. Performance enhancing substances and methods are used by athletes because they: can increase strength and muscle mass, can counteract undesirable side-effects, can hide the presence of banned substances, can increase alertness and/or aggressiveness, can enhance oxygen transfer, can alter test samples provided, can speed up the rehydration process and can reduce pain.

48. Many of the effects of illegal substances and methods can be replicated through legal methods and substances. Some substances and methods are illegal always; however, some are only illegal in competition. People who are caught using illegal substances and methods can have their medals and records taken away and/or be banned for various amounts of time.

49. Some illegal substances and methods are anabolic steroids and human growth hormones.

50. Steroids are synthetically produced drugs that replicate the effect of testosterone. Testosterone has an anabolic and androgenic effect on the body. The anabolic effect is that it promotes bones density, muscle growth and rapid recovery from injury and the androgenic effects relates of the development and maintenance of male secondary sexual characteristics (growth of the reproductive system, deeper voice and facial hair). Athletes use these steroids for the anabolic affects, which are to help develop the bone and muscle mass, which in return provides greater strength and power. This would help them to produce more force to aid them in their activity. The other reason would be to increase the rate of recovery so that the athlete can train more often and for longer periods of times. The potential harms of steroids can be different for males and females. For males, they are at risk of possible infertility, increased libido, testicular atrophy, baldness and development of breast tissue. For women, they are at risk of menstrual problems, increased body fat and hair, deepening of voice and an enlarged clitoris. However both genders are at risk of tendon injury, fluid retention, liver damage, tremors, mood swings, depression, hypertension, acne and cancer. Legal alternatives to steroids (to promote muscle growth) are resistance, plyometric and short interval training and the use of protein supplements (to help with the growth and repair of muscles), however the legal alternative takes a longer amount of time to reach the desired affects.

51. Human Growth Hormones (hGH) s a peptide hormone that is naturally produced in the pituitary gland. This hormone determines the height, bone and muscle growth of a person. Synthetic growth hormone may be taken by athletes with the belief that it would help to increase muscle strength through its capacity to build muscle. However research suggests that the hGH is inconclusive at best and the way to reach the performance benefits would be to take a combination of steroids and hGH. Other growth factors such as Hexarelin stimulate the release of growth hormones and have been linked to quicker recovery and healing time from injuries. The use of human growth hormone are similar to that of steroids. Potential harms of human growth hormone can include fluid retention, acromegaly thickened skin, hypertension, hairiness, cardiac arrest, osteoarthritis and joint and bone pain. The same legal substances and methods used as an alternative to steroids can be used for human growth hormones.

52. 3. What are some ethical considerations regarding the use of performance enhancing practices?

53. The use of performance enhancing methods and substances, whether they are illegal or legal, is a highly debated topic within the sporting industry. Many organisations will ban substances if they have the capacity to artificially enhance the performance of an athlete.

54. Many supporters of this opinion will say that it is cheating and unfair as it gives creates an advantage over other athletes.

55. Other people will say that since these substances are such widespread throughout the community, the only logical way is to allow the athletes to use the substances if they do it safely.

56. There is also some debate around legal substances, such as caffeine, and whether they are safe for young and growing athletes. There have not been studies based on the effect of these substances on young and growing athletes, and therefore the long-term effects are unclear.

57. Apart from these substances, there are questions regarding access to facilities. Many athletes will have access to special medical and support staff, and specialised training grounds and equipment. However, many people do not due to financial difficulties.

58. 4. What is your opinion on the use of performance enhancing practices?

59. I think that all athletes should have an ‘even playing field’. I think that performance enhancing practises are okay to be used, as long as they are legal. Competing in an event is about what the athlete can do and what their body is capable of, therefore I believe that any artificial modification to the body should not be allowed, and that the athlete would have to work for progress. I think that if athletes start use illegal substances it may give them a greater unfair advantage, this could result in more athletes resorting to illegal substances just to have an even chance. Aside from the ethical point of view, there are also major health concerns regarding the use of illegal drugs, which could impede their future endeavours.

60. 5. What are some reasons for using illegal performance enhancing substances and methods?

61. The main reasons for the use of illegal performance enhancing methods and substances usually stem from the pressure on the athlete to succeed. Although it is believed that athletes should always know what they are using, it is not always as clear as it seems. Many factors that cause athletes t use illegal methods and substances are based on the people and environment around them. These are known as sociocultural influences, they include:

62. Income: Many athletes of low income may resort to illegal methods and substances to win their event, which will in return usually provide them money from sponsorships, and allow them to be spotted by higher ranked people. People may also use illegal substances and methods to increase their odds of winning, which will give them reward money. This would provide the athlete with support to train and travel.

63. Education

64. Influence of self, family and peers: Pressure to do well can arise from one’s personal want to improve and receive the money that comes with winning. Pressure can also come from friends and family, as well as peers, as they want the athlete to win and be successful. Many people may suggest using illegal methods and substances as they may not know the harms that can come with these substances and methods.

65. Cultural norms in the society or the particular sporting culture

66. National and political ideology

67. 6. What are some of the anti-doping agencies that Australian athletes will come in contact with? What is their main role? How does their program work?

68. Some of the anti-doping agencies that Australians will come in contact will be both internally run and nationally run. Some examples are The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA), International Olympic Committee (IOC) and Australian Sports Anti-Doping Authority (ASADA).

69. The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) was established in 1999 in response to many sporting concerns. WADA is composed of and funded by governments and sporting movements across the world. The goal of WADA is to ‘promote, coordinate and monitor the fight against doping in sport in all its forms’. There are anti-doping codes in sport to get rid of the use of drugs and other illegal methods in sport.

70. The International Olympic Committee (IOC) makes the WADA’s codes mandatory and during the Olympics they will oversee all anti-doping control and testing processes.

71. The Australian Sports Anti-Doping Agency (ASADA) is the national anti-doping agency in Australia. It makes sure that the international rules are being implemented. The agency works to create a clean and fair game, as well as trying to keep athletes clean and healthy through the stop of illegal substances and methods.

72. BIBLIOGRAPHY:

73. O’Feeffe, M. 2017, Live It Up 1 VCE Physical Education, edn 4, John Wiley & Sons, QLD

74. PART B

75. 1. Find an athlete that has been tested positive to using PES's.

76. 2. What was their sporting background prior to being caught?

77. Maria Sharapova is a well-known female Russian tennis player (although residing in America). She began tennis at a very young age and soon became a worldwide champion. Under the Women’s Tennis Association (WTA) she is currently in 42nd rank but has been ranked 1st in the past.

78. She has won 5 grand slams, and has been a finalist 5 times, been a semi-finalist 10 times. She has won the WTA Tour Championships once and been a finalist twice as well as being a semi-finalist 3 times. She is also a Junior Grand Slam runner up. She also received a Silver medal in the 2012 London Olympics. She has a Fed Cup win and has won over 18 awards.

79. 3. What did they use?

80. She admitted and was tested positive for the use of the commonly banned substance Meldonium (also known as Mildronate), which is not widely known in the United States of America. This substance is manufactured in Latvia and is only used in Northern Europe legally. This substance was banned in 2018 under the WADA code as an S4 substance which addresses hormone and metabolic modulators, however Sharapova had admitted to using this substance for a decade.

81. Meldonium is used under a physician’s care and should only be used once or twice a year in 4-6 week doses. It is used to help blood flow and help defend heart tissue by regulating metabolism. Sharapova admitted to using this drug after being prescribed it for several health issues.

82. 4. What benefits did the athlete acquire?

83. This drug helps to increase endurance, improve rehabilitation after exercise, enhance the activation of the central nervous system and to protect against stress. It works by aiding the oxygen uptake.

84. She had increased endurance meaning that she could maintain her optimal ability for a longer period of time (probably longer than her opponent), which means that she can play better for longer.

85. Having improved rehabilitation ability means that she can train for longer and rest for less, this means that she doesn't spend too much time on injuries and/or recovery from exercise.

86. The enhancement of the central nervous system allows her to have a faster response time by reducing the time it takes for the signal to go to the muscle, in Sharapova's case the reaction of the ball and her time to change directions and hit the ball.

87. 5. What was their losses?

88. Maria Sharapova was banned from competing on court for 2 years (however it was later changed to 15 months) under the anti-doping rule violation under Article 2.1. She has been unable to compete in a few tournaments throughout those 2 years, and her name was not ranked.

89. She lost many sponsorship however, after returning back to competing she soon started earning sponsor ships back, although some brands have disconnected themselves from her. Despite this, it is estimated that this ban could’ve cost her over $50 Million.

90. 6. What are the side effects of the drugs they used?

91. The side effects of Meldonium vary from person to person by they are allergic reactions (swelling, rash, itchiness, redness), digestive problems, increased heart rate, hypertension or hypotension and agitation.

92. 7. What type of testing is done throughout the season in order to have found your athlete positive?

93. Maria Sharapova was caught using drugs during one of the biggest drug sweeps in tennis. This test was conducted by Stockholm-based testing company IDTM and done to every tennis player, male and female, who played singles in the 2016 Australian Open in Melbourne.

94. The sweep used blood and urine testing, Sharapova was caught through her urine sample. She was caught using drugs at the start of the competition.

95. BIBLIOGRAPHY:

96. O’Feeffe, M. 2017, Live It Up 1 VCE Physical Education, edn 4, John Wiley & Sons, QLD Edgar. 2017, 10 famous athletes who were caught doping, 10 famous athletes who were caught doping WTA. 2017, WTA, http://www.wtatennis.com/players/player/310137/title/maria-sharapova White, M. 2016, Here’s How Much Maria Sharapova’s Doping Ban Could Cost Her, http://www.scmp.com/magazines/post-magazine/books/article/2115933/maria-sharapova-memoir-thin-details-will-be-hit-fans, http://time.com/money/4361558/tennis-maria-sharapova-doping-ban-cost/ Mullen, J. 2016, Maria Sharapova loses endorsement deals after failing drug test, http://money.cnn.com/2016/03/08/news/nike-maria-sharapova-nike-suspension-doping/index.html Brain Boosters. 2017, Mildronate Review, https://topbrainboosters.com/mildronate/

97. Maria Sharapova (Tennis)

98. Two big examples were the Wimbledon Championships and the French Open

99. Her reputation also was damaged, as many fans and competitors thought it was unfair that she returned after being caught using an illegal substance.

100. Enhanced Performance

101. Increased Oxygen Delivery: - EPO - Blood Doping - Artifical Oxygen Carriers

102. Pain Masking: - ACTH - Narcotics - Local Anesthetics - Cortisone

103. Drug Use Masking: - Diuretics - Epitestosterone - Plasma Expanders - Secretion Inhibitors

104. Stimulation: - Caffeine - Cocaine - Amphetamines

105. Relaxation: - Beta blockers - Alcohol - Cannabinoids

106. Weight Reduction: - Diuretics

107. Muscle tone building: - LH - Insulin - IGF 1 - hCG - Anabolic steroids - Beta 2 Agonists - hGH