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Ing-form by Mind Map: Ing-form

1. A "Gerund" is a verbal that ends in "ing" and functions as a noun.

1.1. Gerund as subject: Traveling might satisfy your desire for new experiences. (Traveling is the gerund.)

1.2. Gerund as direct object: They do not appreciate singing. (The gerund is singing)

1.3. Gerund as a predicate noun: My cats favourite activity is sleeping. (The gerund is sleeping)

1.4. Gerund as object of preposition: The police arrested him for speeding. (The gerund is speeding)

2. Verber: ing-form

2.1. Former

2.1.1. a) Negativ form: Not knowing what to do, I decided to rest

2.1.2. b) Perfektum: Having finished my work, I went home

2.1.3. c) Passive: She enjoys being talked about

2.2. -ing form og forskellige ordklasser

2.2.1. Adjektiv

2.2.1.1. There was a smoking cigarette in the ashtray

2.2.2. Verbum

2.2.2.1. He is working much these days

2.2.3. Substantiv

2.2.3.1. Running is healthy

2.3. Anvendelse

2.3.1. a) I udvidet tid: She was swimming

2.3.2. b) Efter præpositioner: There is no point in waiting

2.3.3. c) Efter visse verber: I actually enjoyed cleaning the flat

2.3.4. d) Som bisætning: Feeling tired, I went to bed

2.4. -ing form efter præpositioner

2.4.1. Det er normalt at anvende -ing form efter præpositioner, men ikke infinitiv

2.4.2. Den danske navnemåde omdannes til - ing form på engelsk

2.4.3. He has succeeded in finding a new job

2.4.3.1. Det lykkedes ham at finde et nyt job

2.4.4. He apologized for offending her

2.4.4.1. Han undskyldte for at fornærme hende

2.5. -ing form efter "to"

2.5.1. "To" efterfølges normalt af verbet i infinitivform

2.5.1.1. "I want to sit down" - Dog er der nogle vendinger med "to", såsom "Look forward to, object to, be used to..." som betragtes som undtagelser fordi "to" er efterfulgt af et substantiv.

3. Bruges:

3.1. Når det sker lige NU

3.2. Det er beskrivende

3.3. Ved paraelle forløb

3.4. Afbrudte forløb