by Alyssa Sterne
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adaptive, can be used to respond to variety of situations and problems
learning ability, the rate in which we aquire new things
use of prior knowledge, helps to understand and analyze
many different metal processes
culture specific, what may be in one culture, may not be in another
Theoretical Perspectives of Intelligence
Spearman's g: intelligence is made up of two factors, general and specific.
Cattelll's fluid and Crystallized Intelligence: two distinctly different components, fluid and crystallized.
fluid: aquire knowledge quickly and adapt to new situations
crystallized: knowledge they have accumulated from experiences and education
Gardners's Multiple Intelligence: people have several specific abilities, independant of one another
Sternber's Triarchic Theory: intelligent behavior involves an interpay of three factors.
Binet: to identify people with specail needs, to show why some are making progress while others are not.
Wechsler: given to children and adolescents. A verbal and performance to get over all IQ
Stanford-Binet: used with people 2 through adulthood. Yeilds overall IQ as well as verbal and nonverbal
More specifically: fluid reasoning, knowledge, working memory, visual-spatial processing and quantitative reasoning.
Not everything can be summed up in an IQ test.
Specific Ability Tests, New node
Dynamic Assessments: assessing children's ability to learn in new situations., assessment of learning potential
Hereditary and Enviormental Influences on Intelligence
Hereditary Influences: neurological efficiency and maturation are genetically controlled.
Adoption Studies: IQs are more closely related to those of their biological parents, not adoptive parents
Environmental: they are given better schooling, nutrition and attention
Early intervention: students taht participated in Head Start, had an increase in IQ, slight, but still and increase.
Flynn Effect: slow, steady increas in people's average performance on IQ tests throughout the industrial world as well as in Piagetian tasks.
Developmental Trends in IQ Scores
IQ scores are becoming increasingly stable
IQ scores become incrasingly better predictors of future achievement
Two things to remember about intelligence test scores and achievement: just because they have a high IQ, their high achievment may have nothing to do with their intelligence. 2nd; the relationship between IQ scores and achievement is not perfect, there are many excpetions to the rule.
Ethnic and Racial
Critique of Current Perspectives on Intelligence
Research has relied too much on traditional intelligence tests
IQ scores are too often interpreted out of context
a whole picture should be looked at, not just one measure or tool
Assesment of intelligence focuses almost exclusively on skills that are valued by mainstream Western culture
Intelligence tests overlook dispostions ad metacognitive strategies as important contributors to intellectual functioning
Many theorists have placed higher priority on assessing current intelligence than on developing future intelligence.