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Intelligence by Mind Map: Intelligence
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Intelligence

Defining Intelligence

adaptive, can be used to respond to variety of situations and problems

learning ability, the rate in which we aquire new things

use of prior knowledge, helps to understand and analyze

many different metal processes

culture specific, what may be in one culture, may not be in another

Theoretical Perspectives of Intelligence

Spearman's g: intelligence is made up of two factors, general and specific.

Cattelll's fluid and Crystallized Intelligence: two distinctly different components, fluid and crystallized.

Gardners's Multiple Intelligence: people have several specific abilities, independant of one another

Sternber's Triarchic Theory: intelligent behavior involves an interpay of three factors.

Measuring Intelligence

Binet: to identify people with specail needs, to show why some are making progress while others are not.

Wechsler: given to children and adolescents. A verbal and performance to get over all IQ

Stanford-Binet: used with people 2 through adulthood. Yeilds overall IQ as well as verbal and nonverbal

Not everything can be summed up in an IQ test.

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Hereditary and Enviormental Influences on Intelligence

Hereditary Influences: neurological efficiency and maturation are genetically controlled.

Adoption Studies: IQs are more closely related to those of their biological parents, not adoptive parents

Environmental: they are given better schooling, nutrition and attention

Early intervention: students taht participated in Head Start, had an increase in IQ, slight, but still and increase.

Flynn Effect: slow, steady increas in people's average performance on IQ tests throughout the industrial world as well as in Piagetian tasks.

Developmental Trends in IQ Scores

IQ scores are becoming increasingly stable

IQ scores become incrasingly better predictors of future achievement

Group Differences

Socioeconomic

Gender

Ethnic and Racial

Critique of Current Perspectives on Intelligence

Research has relied too much on traditional intelligence tests

IQ scores are too often interpreted out of context

Assesment of intelligence focuses almost exclusively on skills that are valued by mainstream Western culture

Intelligence tests overlook dispostions ad metacognitive strategies as important contributors to intellectual functioning

Many theorists have placed higher priority on assessing current intelligence than on developing future intelligence.