Get Started. It's Free
or sign up with your email address
Rocket clouds
The verb by Mind Map: The verb

1. Classification

1.1. Morphological classification

1.1.1. According to the way of forming past tenses and Participle II Regular To add - added, to love - loved, to look - looked Irregular To make - made, to take - took, to go - went

1.1.2. According to the stem-types all verbs fall into Simple (to go, to take) Stress-replacive (ímport - to impórt, tránsport - to transpórt) Expanded. Formed with the help of suffixes and prefixes (to cultivate, to justify, to overcome) Composite, which is corresponded to composure noun (blackmail - to blackmail, earmark - to earmark, handcuff - to handcuff) Sound-replacive (food - to feed, blood - to bleed) Phrasal (to have a smoke, to give a smile, to work out). They always have an ordinary verb as an equivalent.

1.2. Syntactic classification

1.2.1. According to the nature of predication Finite verb forms tenses, person and number ( I go, she goes, we went etc.) For example: Does your brother know my brother? Non-finite verb forms do not show tense, person or number. Typically they are infinitive forms without to (to go - go) -ing formes and -ed forms. For example: you need to paint the whole cupboard, starting from the bottom.

1.3. Functional classification

1.3.1. According to their functional significant Notional verbs have full nominative value: they are independent in the expression of the process (to read, to work) Semi-notional verbs have partial nominative value: they are depended on other words in the denotation of the process (must) Auxiliaries verbs are used to build analytical grammatical forms of notional verb (have done, well write)

1.4. Lexical-morphological classification

1.4.1. According to the implicit grammatical meaning of transitivity/intransitivity Transitive verb is used with an object (a noun, phrase, or pronoun that refers to the person or thing that is affected by the action of the verb. (To admire, to maintain, to face). Intransitive verb does not have an object ( to cry, to work, to laugh, to talk) Transitive and intransitive verb (to make, to start, to change, to close, to open) To sing To leave

1.4.2. According to the implicit grammatical meaning of stativeness and non-stativeness Stative verb do not have continuous tenses (to hear, to see, to like, to respect, to think, to want, to desire, to belong, to involve) Verbs of inert perception and cognition: to adore, to hate Relational verbs: to consist, to cost, to have Dynamic verbs have continuous tenses ( to cry, to laugh, to read, to run, to grow) Activity verbs: to beg, to call Process verbs: to grow, to widen Verbs of bodily sensations: to itch, to hurt Transitional event verb: to die, to fall Momentary: to hit, to kick, to fall Stative/dynamic. Sometimes it depends on sense/meaning. To see

1.4.3. According to the implicit grammatical meaning of terminativeness/non-terminativeness Terminative verbs denotes an action which has a limit in its development (to come, to die, to find, to put on and almost all phrasal verbs) Durative verb denotes an action which does not admit of any limit in its development (to stand, to seat, to beat, to write)

2. Categories

2.1. Mood

2.1.1. Indicative mood Represent an action as a fact. America was discovered in 1492.

2.1.2. Imperative mood It forms a command or request. Open the window!

2.1.3. Subjunctive mood It represents an action not as a real fact but as something that would take place under certain conditions, something desirable, necessary or unreal, unrealizable. Subjunctive I coincided in form the infinitive without the particle to. It has no tense distinction. May refer to the past, the present and the future. God save the Queen! The Present Subjunctive II coincided in form with the Past Indefinite Indicative . Exception: the verb to be has the form were both in the plural and in the singular. It represents an action as contrary to reality. If I saw him tomorrow I should tell him about it. It refers to the present and the future. The suppositional mood is used to represent an action not as real fact but as something necessary, important, ordered, suggested and not contrary to reality. The Present Suppositional. Pattern: should + indefinite infinitive. It is necessary that he should go there once. The Past Suppositional. Pattern: should + perfect infinitive. He suggested that the work should have been finished. Subjunctive II The Past Subjunctive II. It coincided in form with the Past Perfect Indicative. If I had met her I would have told her about it. It refers to the Past.

2.1.4. The conditional mood The Present Conditional. Pattern: should/would + indefinite infinitive. It is used to express an action which would have taken place under certain conditions in the present and the future. If I had a million dollars, I would give it away to all my friends. The Past Conditional. Pattern: should/would + perfect infinitive. It is used to express an actions which would have taken place under certain condition in the past. If I had gone to the party, I would have had a good time.

2.2. Tense

2.2.1. Past

2.2.2. Non-past Future Present

2.3. Aspect

2.3.1. Continuous (Progressive) to run, to move, to eat

2.3.2. Non-continuous (Non-progressive) to think, to understand, to hate, to love

2.4. Time correlation. It deals with temporal correlation of actions.

2.4.1. Perfect form He had come up to the window and was looking out

2.4.2. Non-perfect form He came up to the window and looked out.

2.5. Voice

2.5.1. Active voice. Subject perform the action stated by the verb. Harry ate six shrimp at dinner.

2.5.2. Passive voice. Subject is acted upon by the verb.Pattern: be + participle II. At dinner, six shrimp were eaten by Harry.

2.5.3. Middle voice. The verbs primarily transitive may develop an transitive middle meaning. The door opened (the form of the verb is active, but the meaning is passive.

2.5.4. Reflexive voice. The subject is both the agent and the recipient of the action. He dressed himself.

2.5.5. Reciprocal voice. Not one person; action aimed at the other member of the same group. They greeted each other.

2.6. Number is mostly restricted to the present tense.

2.6.1. Singular. John goes to college. He went to the college.

2.6.2. Plural. They go to college. In the past tense only the verb to be has the category of number. I/he/she/it was - you/we/they were