The Translation of Neologisms

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The Translation of Neologisms by Mind Map: The Translation of Neologisms

1. Newmark proposed 12 types of neologisms:

1.1. A) Existing lexical items with new senses: 1. Words 2. Collocations

1.2. B) New forms: 1. New coinages 2. Derived words 3. Abbreviations 4. Collocations 5. Eponyms 6. Phrasal words 7. Transferred words (new and old referents) 8. Acronyms (new and old referents) 9. Pseudo-neologisms 10. Internationalism

2. Some quotes about neologisms:

2.1. "Neologisms are the tokens of a creative process," a novel relational product, growing out of the uniqueness of the individual, on the one hand, and the materials, events, people, or circumstances of his life on the other. "

2.2. Neologisms pass through three stages: creation, trial and establishment

2.3. In non-literary texts, you should not normally create neologisms. You create one only: (a) If you have authority; (b) If you compose it out of readily understood Graeco-Latin morphemes.

3. How to Translate Neologisms

3.1. Dictionaries lag behind changes in languages. New words, figurative words and phrases, slang and nonce words1 are coined in the language so swiftly that no dictionary can and should register them immediately. Indeed, the number of neologisms appearing in mass media during a year amounts to tense of thousands in developed languages

3.1.1. For example: English: schoolteacherly Ukrainian: студент-платник (a student who pays tuition fees)

3.2. The analysis of these words and morphemes is an additional helpful tool in finding out the meaning of the neologism. For this purpose, the translator should remember word-formation rules, in particular the following:

3.2.1. 1. Giving words new affixes (i.e. suffixes, prefixes, and endings attached to words/word stems to form new words)

3.2.1.1. For example: English: losingest, googling, telescam Ukrainian: пострадянський (post-Soviet), мобільник (a mobile phone), наркотизм (narcotism)

3.2.2. 2. Creation of new meaning of existing words

3.2.2.1. For example: English: footprint - an impact on our planet Ukrainian: мило ("an email" - the new IT-slang meaning; "a soap" - the traditional meaning)

3.2.3. 3. Loanwords (mostly professional and scientific terms borrowed from other languages)

3.2.3.1. For example: English: glasnost (from Ukrainian: publicity, openness), ponzu (from Japanese: a sauce made with soy sauce and citrus juice), chuddies (from Hindi: underpants) Ukrainian: бізнес-ланч (from English: a business lunch), секюріті (from English: a bodyguard), спічрайтер (from English: a speech writer)

3.2.4. 4. Semi-abbreviations (words made up of parts of other words), abbreviations and acronyms,

3.2.4.1. For example: English: biosecurity, nomophobia (an abbreviation for "no-mobile-phone phobia" which means a fear of being out of mobile phone contact), FSU (the Former Soviet Union) Ukrainian: СНІД (AIDS), страхагент (an insurance agent), туроператор (a tour operator)

4. Ways of translating neologisms:

4.1. - Selection of an appropriate analogue in a target language - Transcription and transliteration - Loan translation and calque - Explanatory translation and descriptive translation