Unit 9 Testing & Individual Differences

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Unit 9 Testing & Individual Differences by Mind Map: Unit 9 Testing & Individual Differences

1. Intelligence

1.1. mental quality consisting of the ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations

1.1.1. Different meaning for different cultures, time, setting, etc. unlike weight or height that’s standard across several groups

1.2. Intelligence test: a method for assessing an individual's mental aptitudes and comparing them with those of others, using numerical scores

1.3. Believed we have one general intelligence and people have special abilities that stand out

1.4. General intelligence (g): general intelligence factor, underlies specific mental abilities and is measured by every task on an intelligence test

1.4.1. Common skill set is based off this 1 intelligence

1.5. Factor analysis: statistical procedure that identifies clusters of related items (Factors) on a test

1.6. Critics

1.6.1. Academic skills does not seem to correlate to social intelligence or physical intelligence

1.7. Gardner’s idea countered Spearman’s

1.7.1. Not 1 intelligence but people have multiple abilities and different kinds of intelligences

1.7.1.1. The 8 Multiple intelligences

1.7.1.1.1. Naturalist, linguistic, interpersonal, logical-mathematical, intrapersonal, musical, bodily-kinesthetic, spatial

1.7.2. Savant syndrome: person otherwise limited in mental ability has an exceptional specific skill

1.8. Savant syndrome: person otherwise limited in mental ability has an exceptional specific skill

1.9. Triarchic theory

1.9.1. Analytical (Academic problem-solving) intelligence

1.9.1.1. Assessed by intelligence: tests usually problems 1 right answer

1.9.2. Creative intelligence

1.9.2.1. Demonstrated in reacting adaptively to situations and coming up with ideas

1.9.3. Practical intelligence

1.9.3.1. Required for everyday tasks, ill defined, multiple solutions

1.10. Creativity: the ability to produce novel and valuable ideas

1.10.1. Requires divergent thinking

1.10.2. Intelligence test examines convergent thinking

1.10.3. Five components of creativity

1.10.3.1. Expertise: well developed base of knowledge needed

1.10.3.2. Imaginative thinking skills: ability to see things in a novel way, recognize patterns and make connections

1.10.3.3. Venturesome personality: seeks new experiences, overcomes obstacles, tolerates risk

1.10.3.4. Intrinsic motivation: motivated by interest, challenge, and satisfaction

1.10.3.5. Creative environment: sparks and supports creative ideas

1.11. Social intelligence: ability to understand and read social situations

1.12. Emotional intelligence: ability to perceive, understand, manage, and use emotions

1.13. Brain size & complexity

1.13.1. Studies and dissections of brains have shown that people with some kind of intelligence have more brain mass or deeper convolutions

1.13.2. Correlation, not causational study

1.14. Brain function

1.14.1. People with higher intelligences seem to process information and solve problems faster

1.14.2. Correlation, not causational study

1.15. More research and further studies in these areas needed to understand brain size and function and its impact on intelligence

2. Assessing Intelligence

2.1. Intelligence test: method for assessing an individual’s mental aptitudes and comparing them with those of others, using numerical scores

2.2. Alfred Binet: hired by French government to create a system to objectively measure students and place them in appropriate settings

2.2.1. Mental age: measure of intelligence test performance created by Binet; age corresponds to a given level of performance

2.2.2. Feared that people will use the test to measure inherent intelligence and be used to label children and not help them

2.3. Lewis Terman

2.3.1. Stanford professor who adapted Binet’s test

2.3.2. Extended upper range of test to superior adults

2.3.3. Believed using these intelligence tests would help to eventually eliminate the non intelligent people from the population

2.4. Stanford Binet: widely used American revision of Binet’s original intelligence test

2.4.1. Today IQ compares the test taker’s performance relative to the average performance of others the same age

2.4.2. Average = 100

2.5. Intelligence quotient

2.5.1. IQ = mental age/chronological age x 100

2.6. Achievement test: test designed to assess what a person learned

2.7. Aptitude test: test designed to predict a person’s future performance

2.8. Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale: most widely used intelligence test containing verbal and nonverbal subtests

2.8.1. Has separate scores for verbal comprehension, perceptual organization, working memory, processing speed

2.8.2. Helps teachers and therapists to identify and help with the strengths and weaknesses of child

2.9. Test must be standardized, reliable, and valid

2.10. Standardization: defining meaningful scores by comparison with the performance of a pretested group

2.10.1. Provides the comparison score

2.11. Normal curve: symmetrical, bell shaped curve that describes the distribution of many physical and psychological attributes

2.11.1. More scores fall in the middle, and fewer towards the outside

2.12. Flynn effect: Rise in test performance over time

2.12.1. To account for this, tests are frequently restandardized

2.13. Reliability: extent to which a test yields consistent results, as assessed by the consistency of scores on 2 halves of the test or on retesting

2.13.1. Higher the correlation between test and retest or the split half scores, the higher the test’s reliability

2.14. Validity: extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to do

2.14.1. Content validity: extent to which a test samples the behavior that is of interest

2.14.2. Predictive validity: success with which a test predicts the behavior it is designed to predict

2.15. Phase I: Cross Sectional Evidence for Intellectual Decline

2.15.1. Research consistently found older people give fewer correct answers than younger people

2.16. Phase II: Longitudinal Evidence for Intellectual Stability

2.16.1. Intelligence remained stable, some even increased when retesting the same cohort (group of people)

2.17. Phase III: It all depends

2.17.1. Maybe those that live longer lives have higher intelligences to begin with

2.17.2. Intelligence tests examine speed and doesn’t account for those who still get the same answer but at a slower speed

2.17.3. Different types of intelligence makes it difficult to come up with 1 answer

2.18. Crystallized intelligence: accumulated knowledge and verbal skills that tend to increase with age

2.19. Fluid intelligence: ability to reason speedily and abstractly that tend to decrease with age

2.20. Low Extreme

2.20.1. Intellectual disability: limited mental ability, with IQ score of 70 or below and difficulty in adapting to the demands of life

2.20.2. Down syndrome: mild to severe intellectual disability and associated physical disorders caused by an extra chromosome 21

2.21. High Extreme

2.21.1. Gifted programs and special classes

3. Genetic & Environmental Influences on Intelligence

3.1. Heritability: proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes

3.2. Identical twins have similar intelligence scores, similar brain scan activities

3.3. Separating the environmental influence on the twin studies is important to really see the effect of heritability

3.4. Genes affect intelligence, but so does the environment we are brought up in

3.4.1. Romanian orphanage children deprived of stimulation and interaction suffered developmental intellectual delays

3.4.2. Malnutrition affects intelligence

3.4.3. Malnutrition affects intelligence

3.4.4. However, that doesn’t mean you can speed up children’s intelligence by providing them an enriched environment with specific products

3.4.5. However, that doesn’t mean you can speed up children’s intelligence by providing them an enriched environment with specific products

3.5. Gender similarities and differences

3.5.1. Men and women score similar on general intelligence tests

3.5.2. Women are better at: spelling, locating objects, detecting emotions, and more sensitive to touch, taste, color

3.5.3. Men are better at: spatial ability, solving complex math, spatial reasoning

3.5.4. Evolutionary psychologist:

3.5.4.1. Genetics & prenatal hormones could explain this difference

3.5.5. Social psychologists:

3.5.5.1. Cultural expectations and influence could explain this difference

3.6. Racial & ethnic similarities and differences

3.6.1. Racial groups differ in their average intelligence scores

3.6.2. High scoring people are more likely to attain high levels of education and income

3.6.3. Points to consider

3.6.3.1. Schools and culture matter. Different cultures achieve higher intelligence scores on certain subjects, usually those that are valued by that culture

3.6.3.2. Different time periods accounted for periods of high achievement across the world

3.7. Intelligence tests are biased when

3.7.1. They measure your developed abilities, which also reflect your education and experiences

3.8. Test-taker’s expectations

3.8.1. Stereotype threat: self confirming concern that one will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype

3.9. There are benefits for intelligence testings

3.9.1. Early intervention and support could be provided

3.10. Must be weary of the use of intelligence tests and labeling people because of their scores

3.10.1. Intelligence tests does not measure a person’s worth or potential