Unit 11 Psychological Disorders

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Unit 11 Psychological Disorders by Mind Map: Unit 11 Psychological Disorders

1. Psychological Disorders

1.1. syndrome marked by a clinically significant disturbance in an individual’s cognition, emotion regulation, or behavior

1.1.1. Maladaptive behaviors: behaviors that interfere with normal day to day life

1.1.2. Significant disturbance definitions have varied and changed over time

1.2. Medical Model: diseases including psychological disorders have physical causes that can be diagnosed, treated, and in most cases, cured often through treatment in a hospital

1.2.1. Historically, people were beaten, burned, had holes drilled in skull to treat mad people

1.2.2. Philippe Pinel began moral treatment which slowly began humane approaches to treatment

1.2.3. 1800’s - syphilis was found to have infect and distort the brain, tying psychological disorders to physical causes

1.3. Biopsychosocial Approach: today, psychology studies how biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors interact to produce specific psychological disorders

1.3.1. Mind and body are inseparable whether normal or disordered behavior

1.3.2. Interaction of nature and nurture influences behavior

1.3.3. Some disorders are more prevalent in certain cultures

1.3.4. Depression and schizophrenia occur worldwide and not culturally bound

1.4. DSM-5: American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 5th edition; used for classifying psychological disorders

1.5. Classifying disorders help to describe, predict future course, suggest appropriate treatment, and stimulate research into the disorders

1.6. Physicians and mental health workers use DSM to guide medical diagnosis and determine who is eligible for treatments, medication, etc.

1.7. DSM continually changes over time

1.7.1. DSM-5: includes Autism spectrum disorder, Intellectual disability, hoarding disorder, binge eating disorder

1.8. Labels create preconceptions that guide perceptions and interpretations of people

1.8.1. David Rosenhan’s study: Sent people to mental institutions that had no disorder. All were diagnosed and causes of their disorder was found at the hospitals

1.8.2. Self-fulfilling prophecies: labels such as gifted child or hostile child may influence the teacher to treat the student a way that fits the label, and the student themselves will act the way they are labeled

1.8.3. Labels create stigmas and people with psychological disorders are often portrayed with stereotypes in the media Most people with psychological disorders are not violent, but the few that are receive a lot of media attention and ethical/moral dilemma

1.8.4. Most people with psychological disorders are not violent, but the few that are receive a lot of media attention and ethical/moral dilemma Helps mental health professionals communicate about their cases Helps patient understand their diagnosis Helps with the course of treatment and exploring causes of various disorders for both research and patient

1.9. Vulnerability to a disorder depends on the disorder

1.10. America has highest rates of disorders, with Shanghai having the least amount

1.11. Poverty

1.11.1. High correlation between poverty and mental disorders

2. Anxiety Disorders, OCD, PTSD

2.1. Anxiety disorder: psychological disorders characterized by distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety

2.1.1. Generalized anxiety disorder

2.1.2. Panic disorder

2.1.3. Phobias

2.1.4. Obsessive-compulsive disorder

2.1.5. Post-traumatic stress disorder

2.2. Many people deal with various symptoms of anxiety disorders but when it becomes persistent and distressing, interfering with daily activity, that’s when it becomes a disorder

2.3. Generalized Anxiety Disorder: Anxiety disorder in which a person is continually tense, apprehensive, and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal

2.3.1. Symptoms: pathological worry, difficulty with concentration, sleep issues, depressed moods, lasting 6 months or more

2.3.2. Difficulty identifying the cause, making it difficult to treat 2/3 of people with generalized anxiety disorder are women

2.4. Panic Disorder: anxiety disorder marked by unpredictable, minutes long episodes of intense dread in which a person experiences terror and with chest pain, choking, etc.

2.4.1. Symptoms include: heart palpitations, shortness of breath, dizziness

2.4.2. Cigarette smokers are at double the risk for panic disorders because nicotine is a stimulant, makes panic attacks worse

2.4.3. People become increasingly worried about their next panic attack, making their panic disorders worse

2.5. Phobias: anxiety disorder marked by a persistent, irrational fear and avoidance of a specific object, activity, situation

2.5.1. Specific phobias: phobias on a specific focus like animals, insects, heights, close spaces, etc.

2.5.2. Social anxiety disorder: extreme shyness with intense fear of being scrutinized by others

2.6. Obsessive-compulsive disorder: disorder characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts and or actions

2.6.1. More common in children and young adults Examples of obsessions concern with dirt or germs; something terrible happening like death or fire; symmetry or order Examples of compulsions Excessive hand washing/bathing/toothbrushing; repeating rituals; checking doors/locks/appliances

2.7. Post-traumatic stress disorder: disorder characterized by haunting memories, nightmares, social withdrawal, jumpy anxiety, numbness of feelings and or insomnia that lingers for 4 weeks or more after a traumatic experience such as

2.7.1. war veterans, survivors of accidents, disasters and violent and sexual assault survivors, prostitutes, etc

2.7.2. The greater one’s emotional distress during a trauma, the higher the risk for PTSD

2.7.3. The more frequent an experience, the more adverse long term effects

2.8. Biological factors that may increase chances of PTSD

2.8.1. People with sensitive limbic system floods body with stress hormones

2.8.2. Genetics: identical twins seem to have higher rates of PTSD if the other twin has

2.9. Post traumatic growth

2.9.1. People overcoming some type of adversity/trauma find an increased appreciation for life

2.10. Learning Perspective - anxiety and fear explained through behavioral psychology

2.10.1. Fear conditioning - link between conditioned fear and general anxiety Stimulus generalization: incident with 1 dog makes you generalize fear to all dogs Reinforcement: maintains phobias and compulsions

2.11. Learning Perspective - anxiety and fear explained through behavioral psychology

2.11.1. Observational learning: learn fear through observing others’ fears Child may have a fear of bugs if they see their parents having the same fear Monkeys in the wild fear snakes while lab-reared monkeys don’t

2.12. Learning Perspective - anxiety and fear explained through cognitive psychology

2.12.1. Cognition Our own interpretations and beliefs can cause anxiety

2.13. Biological Perspective - anxiety and fear explained through natural selection, genes, the brain

2.13.1. Natural selection: back in the day, we needed to be fearful of snakes, bugs, heights, confined spaces, etc. to survive even though they may no longer apply to our lives today

2.13.2. Genes: some people are more vulnerable to anxiety disorders than others Researchers have found genes that are linked to anxiety disorders and other genes that regulate neurotransmitters that affect mood

2.14. Biological Perspective - anxiety and fear explained through natural selection, genes, the brain

2.14.1. Brain People with OCD have elevated activity in the anterior cingulate cortex Various drugs can help to regulate emotion associated with the experience

3. Mood Disorders

3.1. Mood disorder: psychological disorders characterized by emotional extremes

3.1.1. Major depressive disorder: prolonged hopelessness and lethargy

3.1.2. Bipolar disorder: person alternates between depression and mania

3.2. Going through bouts of sadness and depressed moods is necessary

3.2.1. Helps your body slow down, process, grieve appropriately

3.3. Major depressive disorder is diagnosed when at least 5 of the following last two or more weeks causing distress or impairment, not caused by substance abuse, medication, or other psychological disorders

3.3.1. Depressed mood most of the day, markedly diminished interest or pleasure in activities most of the day, significant weight loss or gain when not dieting, insomnia or sleeping too much, physical agitation or lethargy, feeling worthless or excessive/inappropriate guilt, problems in thinking/concentrating/decision making, recurrent thoughts of death/suicide

3.4. Persistent depressive disorder (dysthymia): mildly depressed mood more often than not for at least 2 years displaying at least 2 of the symptoms

3.4.1. Problems regulating appetite, problems regulating sleep, low energy, low self esteem, difficulty concentrating and making decisions, feelings of hopelessness

3.5. Weather and seasonal pattern effect

3.5.1. Depression may return during fall/winter seasons

3.5.2. Mania may return during spring seasons

3.6. Bipolar disorder: mood disorder in which a person alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy of depression and the overexcited state of mania

3.6.1. Mania: euphoric, hyperactive, wildly optimistic state People are typically over talkative, sleep little, easily irritated, poorer judgement Less severe forms of mania has shown to fuel creativity Virgina Woolf, Mark Twain, etc. have had bipolar disorder

3.7. Many behavioral and cognitive changes accompany depression

3.7.1. People feel inactive and unmotivated

3.7.2. More sensitive to negative events and recall negative information easier

3.7.3. More than 1/2 the time, another disorder exists

3.8. Depression is widespread

3.8.1. If disorder is common, symptoms must be common as well

3.9. Women are at 2x at risk of major depression than men

3.9.1. Common gender gap worldwide

3.9.2. Women more vulnerable to disorders involving internalized states

3.9.3. Men more vulnerable to disorders involving externalized states

3.10. Most major depressive episodes self terminate

3.10.1. Most people return to normal even without professional help

3.11. Stressful events often precede depression

3.11.1. Loved one’s death, job loss, marital crisis, etc. increase one’s risk of depression

3.12. With each new generation, depression is striking earlier and affecting more people, with highest rates in developed countries in young adults

3.12.1. Could be attributed to more understanding, awareness and disclosure of depression in young adults but could also be attributed to societal/biological changes newer generations are facing

3.13. Biological perspective

3.13.1. Genetic influences

3.13.2. Depressed brain

3.13.3. Many genes work together to produce small effects, that interact with other factors putting people at greater risk for certain disorders than others

3.13.4. Diminished brain activity during depressed states

3.13.5. Increased brain activity during manic states

3.13.6. Decreased axonal white matter

3.13.7. Enlarged fluid filled ventricles

3.13.8. Norepinephrine scarce during depression and overabundant during mania

3.13.9. Boosting serotonin may promote recovery from depression

3.13.10. Healthy diet also decreases risk for depression

3.13.11. Alcohol increases risk for depression

3.14. Social-Cognitive perspective

3.14.1. Negative thoughts and negative moods interact Rumination - staying focused on a problem People who view events as stable, global, and internal are depression prone, self esteem fluctuates more rapidly Optimistic thinkers less prone to depression Cultural differences: Western thinking of individualism forces young people to take personal responsibility for failure or rejection

3.15. Social-Cognitive perspective

3.15.1. Negative thoughts and negative moods interact State dependent memory: depressed mood triggers negative thoughts Self-defeating beliefs, negative attributions, and self blame coincide with a depressed mood and are indicators of depression but not necessarily the cause of depression

3.16. Social-Cognitive perspective

3.16.1. Depression’s vicious cycle Negative, stressful events interpreted through a ruminating, pessimistic explanatory style creates a hopeless, depressed state that hampers the way the person thinks and acts, fueling back a negative stressful event such as rejection Everybody goes through depression and struggles with it, but breaking through the cycle by changing the environment, or taking part in pleasant activities help people to regain positive outlook and succeed

4. Schizphrenia

4.1. psychological disorder characterized by delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, and or diminished, inappropriate emotional expression

4.1.1. Psychosis: psychological disorder when a person loses contact with reality, experiencing irrational ideas and distorted perceptions

4.1.2. Delusions: false beliefs, often of persecution or grandeur, that may accompany psychotic disorders

4.1.3. Hallucinations: see, feel, taste, smell, most often hear things that aren’t there

4.1.4. Paranoia: feelings of persecution

4.1.5. Selective attention: focusing on one thing and ignoring other stimuli becomes difficult

4.2. Diminished and Inappropriate Emotions

4.2.1. Expressing inappropriate emotions

4.2.2. Flat affect: emotionless state

4.2.3. Have difficulty reading and understanding other people's’ emotions and feelings

4.2.4. Inappropriate motor behavior

4.3. Over 40% can have normal life experiences with proper environment and medication

4.4. However, many are isolated with difficulty in jobs and social settings

4.5. Onset

4.5.1. Usually occurs in people entering adulthood

4.5.2. Sometimes the onset of is sudden

4.5.3. Sometimes the onset is gradual

4.6. Development

4.6.1. Schizophrenia with positive symptoms Presence of inappropriate behaviors Experience hallucinations, disorganized speech, inappropriate laughter/emotions; etc.

4.6.2. Schizophrenia with negative symptoms Absence of appropriate behaviors Have toneless voices, expressionless faces, etc.

4.6.3. Recovery and medication most effective on those with acute/reactive schizophrenia with positive symptoms

4.7. Brain abnormalities

4.7.1. Dopamine overactivity found in brains of deceased patients with schizophrenia Hyper responsive dopamine system may be intensifying and creating positive symptoms such as hallucinations and paranoia Drugs that help block dopamine receptors help

4.7.2. Abnormal brain activity and anatomy Out of sync neurons and abnormal brain activity in frontal lobe of brain

4.7.3. Maternal virus during midpregnancy Viral infection during pregnancy may impair the development of the fetal brain

4.8. Genetic Factors

4.8.1. Identical twin studies show that there is a genetic factor

4.9. Psychological Factors

4.9.1. There doesn’t seem to be 1 cause of schizophrenia Some genetic influence, some brain abnormalities influence, stressors and life event influences, maternal viral infection influence, combination of all or some, etc. Early warning signs observed in young adults with 1 or more relative with schizophrenia

5. Dissociative, Personality, and Eating Disorders

5.1. disorders in which conscious awareness becomes separated from previous memories, thoughts, and feelings

5.1.1. Faced with trauma, people dissociate to protect themselves from being overwhelmed by emotion

5.2. Dissociative identity disorder: rare dissociative disorder in which a person exhibits two or more distinct and alternating personalities

5.2.1. Each personality has its own voice and mannerisms

5.2.2. Original personality usually denies knowledge of other personalities

5.3. Debate of DID

5.3.1. Skeptics believe that it’s therapist driven convincing people who are fantasy-prone and emotionally vulnerable to come up with personalities

5.3.2. Skeptics found in research that people with DID are easily hypnotizable

5.3.3. Skeptics also question why it’s so prevalent in North America and maybe it’s an American cultural phenomenon

5.3.4. Other researchers believe DID is genuine People have created multiple personalities to detach themselves from horrific/traumatic experiences Research has shown differences in handedness when people switched personalities Ophthalmologists detected shifting visual acuity and eye muscle balance as people switched personalities Psychodynamic theorists suggest: other personalities as defense mechanisms for repressed behavior. Other personalities can act out these repressed thoughts Learning theorists suggest: dissociative disorders as behaviors reinforced by anxiety reductio

5.4. Personality disorders: psychological disorders characterized by inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning

5.4.1. Those that are fearful sensitivity to rejection

5.4.2. Those that exhibit eccentric or odd behavior

5.4.3. Those that exhibit dramatic or impulsive behaviors

5.5. Antisocial personality disorder: personality disorder in which a person exhibits a lack of conscience for wrongdoing, even toward friends and family, may be aggressive and ruthless or clever

5.5.1. Typically male whose lack of conscience is visible before age 15

5.5.2. Those who develop antisocial personality disorder have difficulty with jobs, irresponsible as spouse/parent, becomes assaultive or a criminal

5.5.3. Those with high intelligence may become con artists, ruthless executive, etc.

5.6. Antisocial personality disorder

5.6.1. Criminality is NOT an essential part of the disorder

5.6.2. Most criminals show responsible concern for their friends and family

5.6.3. People with antisocial personality disorder show little remorse, behave impulsively, feel and fear little

5.7. Biological Factors

5.7.1. No 1 gene is associated with antisocial personality disorder, but multiple genes may increase risk

5.7.2. Relatives with antisocial personality disorder are at greater risk for developing it themselves

5.7.3. Show little autonomic nervous system arousal to loud noises, aversive events, etc

5.7.4. Level of stress hormones were lower in younger children

5.7.5. Brain showed less activity in frontal lobe

5.8. Biopsychosocial Perspective

5.8.1. Abuse during childhood, childhood poverty, obstetrical complications Genes predisposed some children to be more sensitive to maltreatment Combination of genetic, biological factors with social-environmental factors could contribute to the cause of antisocial personality disorder

5.9. Humans naturally want to maintain a steady weight, and store energy reserves for times when food becomes unavailable

5.10. Anorexia nervosa: eating disorder in which a person maintains a starvation diet despite being significantly underweight

5.10.1. 9 out of 10 are women

5.10.2. Usually adolescents

5.10.3. Obsessed with losing weight and exercise excessively

5.10.4. Feel fat and fear being fat

5.10.5. Over half show binge-purge-depression cycle

5.11. Bulimia nervosa: eating disorder in which a person alternates binge eating with purging by vomiting or fasting

5.11.1. Mostly women in late teens, early adulthood

5.11.2. Fear of becoming overweight

5.11.3. Experience depression and anxiety during and after binges

5.11.4. Weight fluctuates within or above average normal ranges unlike anorexia

5.12. Binge-eating disorder: significant binge eating episodes, followed by distress, disgust, or guilt, but without the compensatory purging or fasting that makes up bulimia or anorexia

5.13. Social/environmental factors

5.13.1. Mothers of girls with eating disorders tend to focus on their own weight and daughter’s weight and appearance

5.13.2. Families of bulimia patients have a higher than usual incidence of childhood obesity and negative self evaluation

5.13.3. Families of anorexia patients tend to be competitive, high achieving, and protective

5.13.4. Western culture portrayal and media coverage on thinness and fat is bad adding to social pressure

5.13.5. Teen boys also pursuit unrealistic muscularity