Chapter 1: Introduction to Operating System

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Chapter 1: Introduction to Operating System by Mind Map: Chapter 1: Introduction to Operating System

1. Evolution of OS

1.1. Serial Processing

1.2. Simple Batch Systems

1.3. Multiprogrammed Batch Systems

1.4. Time Sharing Systems

2. Objectives and Functions

2.1. Convenience

2.2. Efficiency

2.3. Ability to evolve

3. Symmetric Multiprocessing (SMP)

3.1. Term that refers to a computer hardware architecture and also to the OS behavior that exploits that architecture

3.2. Several processes can run in parallel

3.3. Multiple processors are transparent to the user

3.4. The OS takes care of scheduling of threads or processes on individual processors and of synchronization among processors

4. The Role of an OS

4.1. OS responsible for managing these resources

5. Parallel Systems

5.1. Multiprocessor systems with more than one CPU in close communication

5.2. Tightly coupled system

5.2.1. Processors share memory and a clock; communication usually takes place through the shared memory

5.3. Advantages of parallel system

5.3.1. Increased throughput, Economical, Increased reliability, Graceful degradation and Fail-soft systems

6. Asymmetric Multiprocessing (SMP)

6.1. Master processor schedules and allocates work to slave processors

6.2. Slave processor look to the master processor for instruction

6.3. More common in extremely large systems

7. Real-Time Systems

7.1. The operating system, and in particular the scheduler, is perhaps the most important component

7.2. Correctness of the system depends not only on the logical result of the computation but also on the time at which the results are produced

7.3. Tasks or processes attempt to control or react to events that take place in the outside world

7.4. Hard real-time task

7.4.1. one that must meet its deadline

7.4.2. otherwise it will cause unacceptable damage or a fatal error to the system

7.5. Soft real-time task

7.5.1. has an associated deadline that is desirable but not mandatory

7.5.2. it still makes sense to schedule and complete the task even if it has passed its deadline

8. Characteristics of Real Time Systems

8.1. Determinism

8.1.1. Concerned with how long an operating system delays before acknowledging an interrupt

8.2. Responsiveness

8.2.1. critical for real-time systems that must meet timing requirements imposed by individuals, devices, and data flows external to the system

8.3. User control

8.3.1. Generally much broader in a real-time operating system than in ordinary operating systems

8.4. Reliability

8.4.1. Real-time systems respond to and control events in real time so loss or degradation of performance may have catastrophic consequences

8.5. Fail-soft operation

8.5.1. A characteristic that refers to the ability of a system to fail in such a way as to preserve as much capability and data as possible